Shangri-la in the Himalayas
Malana is a fiercely independent relic of an old-order civilisation that claims descent from the Greeks. It has historically remained aloof and defiant, tough to access through the centuries
Kuldeep Chauhan
Tribune News Service

Just when you think that India can’t get any stranger, along comes a place like Malana and gives your brain something even stranger to wrap itself around.

Below the Chanderkhani pass of the Kullu valley lies a small cluster of around 200 stone-roof houses constituting a village called Malana. Its inimitable culture and the temple of Jamlu distinguish the village, which consists of around 1,500 inhabitants and has an impeccable system of administration with even a higher and lower court guided by the spirit of village God Jamlu.

Uniqueness lies in...

Inhabitants’ persistent and adamant effort has helped the village retain its age-old heritage

Inaccessibility makes the village a greater attraction

Geographical location is unique, which has preserved its bio-diversity and is an ecological heaven

The manner of worship in strikingly different

Some words of the language and architectural motifs are arguably of Greek provenance

A strange legend exists related to Akbar legitimising pre-eminence of the Jamlu devta

Language locally called Kanashi does not belong to the Indo-Aryan group and serves and acts as a medium of communication among the Malanese only

Architecture is unique and each architectural structure has a specific purpose and bears a vernacular name

An elected village judiciary enforces rules and regulations adopted over the centuries

Malana stands out as an autonomous self-created unit whose inhabitants claim Greek ancestry. The unique geographical location of Malana has enabled it to preserve its biodiversity and it is an ecological haven.

An exotic atmosphere catches hold of the visitor once he enters the village. Houses with antique look and people in their traditional attire, it seems to be a different world altogether.

Malana is divided into two divisions, upper Malana (Dhara Beda) and lower Mala (Sor Beda). It is inhabited by Rajputs only, besides two families of Lohars and Julahas, who came to the village as drummers and were allowed to settle there.

A stone-lined path goes through the centre of the village where people can be seen lazing on the ground or playing dice, locally called panji. For outsiders, there is a long list of dos and don’ts to be followed. “Don’t touch anything” signboards forbidding one to touch anything are conspicuously placed in the village.

Villagers are friendly but outsiders are told to keep distance and not to touch anything in the village. Photography is allowed, but not video-filming.

There is also the custom of a newborn male baby being given the same name as that of his grandfather. Women call their husbands by name contrary to the tradition prevalent in the rest of the country.

The fields are dotted with dark green patches of cannabis still figuring as a prime money-spinner.

People in this unique village have never seen a plough and a bullock. “We have never ploughed the fields,” elderly Chande Ram said, turning to his friend Chatar, who nodded.

Chande Ram though in his late 50s shares his branded cigarettes with Amar and Chattar, almost 25 years younger to him.
Villagers gather for a panchayat meet
Villagers gather for a panchayat meet 

Most of the youth is busy with their mobile phones. In fact, Malana is set to have a tryst with the new-age economy if all goes as HIMPA, an NGO, has planned.

The world’s oldest surviving democracy, the 10-member Malana panchayat faces double challenge as to how to preserve its ancient arts stone-roofed architecture and adopt new ways of modern economy.

But a big question haunts HIMPA that came to the village with its new economic mantra of alternative crops of herbs and flowers on September 15. HIMPA faces a challenge as to how to put back modern Malana in a farming mode.
A hut in the village where youths play pool game
A hut in the village where youths play pool game

The fastest growing cannabis economy has pushed bullocks and ploughs on the brink of extinction in Malana about 10 years ago!

Modern Malana youth plays billiards in Bollywood style and drink colas. Most children do not go to school after class VII or VIII, as education is the last priority in the village. They discuss more about Goa and Mumbai in their local Malana dialect that no outsider can understand.

Although villagers claim to be descendants of Alexander the Great soldiers, there is no proved lexical link with Greek or Macedonian languages. The language of the village, called Kanashi, is unintelligible for outsiders from the Kullu valley. The core of the Kanashi vocabulary consists of Tibetan and Hindi layers. Language is also considered to be one of the secrets of the village and outsiders are not allowed to use it for communication.

A lost utopia?

A big question remains. How long can the unique identity of this land be maintained when the Malanese themselves are succumbing to modernisation?

In January this year, over half of the village was gutted in a raging inferno. In the reconstruction process, the dwellings are changing. In fact, the village is going through a slow process of socio-cultural degradation and if this continues the day may not be far off when it will lose its unique identity.

To be concluded



Fredda Brilliant’s Gandhi in Shimla
by Shriniwas Joshi

The man of the millennium was nominated for Nobel Peace Prize in1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948, but was never awarded the Nobel. The omission was publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee because the faux pas had carted off quite a bit of sheen from the prize.

The UN, however, recognised that Gandhi not only played a major role in India achieving its independence but also taught a philosophy of search for truth through non-violence which has universal applicability and so declared Mahatma’s birthday as “International Day of Non-Violence” in 2007.

Forty-two years earlier, Fredda Brilliant, an émigré Pole, who was born into a Jewish diamond family in Lodz, had sculpted Mahatma Gandhi. This Gandhi is a seated figure, resilient and meditative, not the more familiar Gandhi with a walking stick. Though the image is seated, yet it is the most moving of all in London and was unveiled at the garden area of Tavistock Square in Bloomsbury by Harold Wilson, Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1965. The statue has lent serenity to the Square and is popularly known as Peace Park where Jawaharlal Nehru had planted a beech in 1950’s.

Those who cannot go to London to see the most admired work of Fredda Brilliant may see the bust of Mahatma, a replica of the face and the chest of the statue at Tavistock, at the State Museum complex in Shimla. Its clone adorns the Supreme Court campus. The words of Shiv Kant Jha, an advocate in the SC and a descendent from the freedom fighters’ family, reflects the feelings of many who see the bust in Shimla, “It was beyond me to comprehend why the Father of the Nation was so much down-cast. While it is not unlikely in these locust-eaten years for most fathers to be sad on seeing the deeds of their progeny, Gandhi’s drooping face indicated some deeper pang, some iron in his soul. Is he so morose because he has really noticed that the talisman he had given to the decision-makers of the free India is now quoted at the lowest price on the stock exchange?”

Fredda Brilliant after marrying Herbert Marshall, a documentary film maker, in 1935 travelled India intensively. In Shimla, Fredda presented a bust of Mahatma Gandhi to the Municipal Corporation that was installed on the ground left of Ashiana on the Ridge.

Fredda’s Gandhi had to move to the museum to vacate the original place for the hill-belle with a pitcher by Saxena when Y.S. Parmar was installed in her place in 1984. The bust of Gandhi at the museum attracts the visitors but there is no placard to show whose creation is it. When in India, Fredda did Indira Gandhi with half a face as if seen above a veil, which forced the viewer to concentrate on the eyes; it was entitled, The Eyes of India. Fredda also did busts of Jawaharlal Nehru and Krishna Menon.

While she was working on the busts of Nehru, ants destroyed one bust and the intense heat desiccated another but ultimately she could present Nehru’s pensive solemnity in an exemplary piece of art. Krishna Menon died in 1974, and his bust made by Fredda was erected at Fitzroy Square Gardens in London in 1979. It was stolen from there. Another bust of his was installed in 1984 at the same place to meet the same fate. A third cast was transferred to Camden Centre where it stood even today.

Fredda’s contribution to Shimla is also a bust of Dr Rajendra Prasad. It was gifted to the Governor’s Secretariat and is displayed prominently on the corridor emerging from the main entrance of the Barnes Court. This gypsy creator of art toured almost the entire world sculpting like mad here, there and everywhere — she would often sing loud in public, tears would flow as easily as laughter and anger. She has authored several books and Biographies in Bronze (1986) is a catalogue of her surviving works. She died in Illinois about nine years back.


Fredda did not sculpt Picasso because when he asked her to portray him by visiting him in southern France, she reached there where he pinched her bottom and she refused to have any further dealings with him.



Giving freedom fighters their due
Ashok Raina

Great warriors who did every thing in their capacity to see India free from the clutches of the British rulers are living desolated lives in free India. But Vivekananda Kendra, a spiritually oriented service mission with its headquarters at Kanayakumari, has started tracing them to bring them before the people of the country.

Still living with same devotion towards their motherland, some freedom fighters in 90’s have decided to work for the society through the activities of Vivekananda Kendra. Every year they attend the national youth day in Kangra, which is organised as Vivekananda Jayanti in connection with the birthday of Swami Vivekananda.

Its workers trace out freedom fighters whose contributions are then brought before the nation. Inspired by the thought movement of Swami Vivekananda, these freedom fighters narrate the tales of their great contributions during the freedom struggle of India to the younger generation. They inspire youths to see beyond their families and serve the nation.

Talking over their plight, Bagh Singh, a freedom fighter, said, “I am not at all pained as I am one among the forgotten lot of the freedom fighters because I had never thought of life but of fight and death during the freedom struggle. I never thought of receiving but of giving only. Several freedom fighters, who were associates of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, demand that an INA museum should be set up near the war memorial at Dharamssala in order to keep the memories of the martyrs of the INA alive and inspire the coming generations for greater sacrifice when the nation beckons. They want this museum to be provided with proper infrastructure, including library, photo, drawings and painting exhibitions heroes.

INA heroes of this state headed by Capt Ram Singh Thakur comprised the INA orchestra band, which composed the tune of the National Anthem. It is a shame that Capt Ram Singh Thakur was not even remembered by the state government on his birthday on August 15 this year.

Vivekananda Kendra, however, honours one INA freedom fighter every year on the occasion of Vivekananda Jaynati. So far four freedom fighters at the fag end of their lives have been honoured. These are Hoshiyar Singh, Jang Bhadur Tahapa, Hoshiyar Singh Thapa and Bagh Singh. 

Bagh Singh was born on June 16, 1921, at Tripal Dharghata village in the Dhera subdivision of this district and lost his father and brother when he was in class X. To feed his family, he joined the Indian Signal Core of the British government at Jabalpur in 1940 as a wireless operator. He said the British government did not trust Indian youths serving the British Army so the Indians could not use wireless sets independently.

In August 1941, Bagh Singh went to Iraq, Iran and Africa. He remembers that during wartime in Africa while setting the frequencies of his wireless set he tuned to Azad Hind Radio (AHR), voicing from Berlin run by Indian freedom fighters Mohd. Iqbal Shardai and Sardar Ajeet Singh, uncle of martyr Baghat Singh.

He said every word was piercing his heart and this kindled the inspiration in him for joining the freedom struggle to see India as a free and independent country. He called other three Indian colleagues, Sardar Jaswant Singh of Rawalpindi, Sardar Sooraj Singh of Taran Taran and Sardar Balwant Singh of Ferozpur and starting listening AHR but were caught by a British army commandant and were arrested and court-marshaled.

Meanwhile, German forces attacked the camp where all three Indians were being court-marshaled. Bagh Sigh managed to escape during the melee of the attack. He travelled by a ship which was attacked by the German forces in the sea and two ships sank just before his eye and 246 persons from his ship jumped into the sea to swim across to the shore which was 500 km away.

Bagh Singh remembers the moment when he for the first confronted death when the ship captain told that the remaining 30 persons, including him, that he would not allow them to jump out of the ship as the water tank of the ship was damaged and ship would sink if they jump out. He threatened them that he would shoot them dead to maintain the balance of the ship with the weight of their dead bodies.

The ship reached Greece coast and as a prisoner of war he was taken to Italy where he had his first meeting with Subhash Chandra Bose on January 27 in 1942. On his first meeting, Netaji told them “Sheer banoo kumkhar mere Hindi seepahee, dushman kee safay tood doo eek tahalka macha doo, kyon Lal Quila yooun rahay dushman kay hawalay, chal ous kee bulandi koo tarange say sajadoo”.

Bagh Singh wrote with his blood a solemn oath saying ours only mission is to throw away English rulers out of India. “The British would not leave the country when we fold our hands before them so we are ready for death and last man who would survive would reach India at all costs”. He remembers Neta ji coming to the dining table in civil uniform and enjoying the dinner with INA personnel.

He joined the Indian National Army (INA) as wireless operator and visited Denmark, Poland, Ukraine, Holland, Belgium and France. At Narmandi in France, following a parachute attack by enemies he managed to reach Switzerland after crossing Niples volcano after walking continuously for 90 hours.

In August 1945, Bagh Singh was arrested and imprisoned in different jails of Europe, Dresden, Alsip jail before he was shifted to Multan and Bhadurghar jail.

He said in Terpoli jail, Indian prisoners were given 250 g of bread and one cup of water during 48 hours and in Bhadurgarh jail, sand bags were kept on their back and they were asked to run as British forces showered bullets on them resulting in the death of 250 prisoners in three days. He said, “I managed to save myself by lying down with the sand bag just on my back after hearing the first gunshot fired from behind.”

His trial was conducted for three cases in Red Fort and in February 1946, Bagh Singh was released. He is now living a life of a forgotten freedom fighter in his native village of Tripal Dharghata. 



shimla diary
‘Make Hindi denigration an offence’
Rakesh Lohumi
Tribune News Service

Chairperson of the Rashtriya Hindi Academy Swadesh Bharati is in favour of taking stern action against those who openly oppose Hindi and asserts that denigrating the rashtra bhasha should be made a cognizable offence.

Chairperson of the Rashtriya Hindi Academy Swadesh Bharati 
Chairperson of the Rashtriya Hindi Academy Swadesh Bharati

“The manner in which Maharashtra Nirman Sena (MNS) is using the regional language to divide the people is a dangerous trend that has to be dealt with effectively,” said Bharati.

“Regional languages must be promoted but at the same time it should be ensured that those using national language, Hindi are not penalised or harassed due to vested interests.”

His academy encourages the writers of regional languages and it has spearheaded the campaign for inclusion of Nepali, Manipuri and Konkani in the eighth schedule.

“Hindi is the binding force that unites the country. Undermining it for political gains would only weaken the unity and integrity of the nation. Time has come to take firm action against those who opposed the national language without any rhyme or reason just to achieve political ends. Such action should not be allowed to go un-noticed,” says Swadesh Bharati.

He laments that print media in the country is not giving enough space to language, literature, literary and creative activities.

In western countries literature still receives wide coverage and newspaper like the New York Times have a regular 32-page literary supplement.

In France almost 50 per cent of the magazine space is devoted to literary activities.

Observing Hindi divas and Hindi pakhwara was waste of time and funds, as it did not help in achieving the objective.

The cause of the national language would be better served by promoting creative activities, producing good literature and recognising the contribution of those who enriched it.

Political scene hots up

With the Lok Sabha poll drawing near, the ruling BJP and the opposition Congress, have geared up their activities. Early this week, the Congress held a meeting of the general house. It was the first major event after Kaul Singh took over the reins of the party.

The BJP state executive also met to finalise its strategy for the election.

The Congress is working on a plan to bring in BJP and BSP leaders who have a significant hold on the electorate. Son of the BJP stalwart late Jagdev Chand Narinder Thakur and, Karan Singh, brother of senior BJP leader Maheshwar Singh who joined the BSP after being denied the party ticket, are prominent among them. The party has taken notice of the fact that BSP’s vote share during the assembly poll surged from 0.80 per cent to over 7 per cent, mostly at its cost.

Kaul Singh declared that those willing to join the party unconditionally would be welcome. 

Journey of a journal

The Hindi magazine brought out by the state department of language, art and culture has established itself as a valued publication in the literary circles across the country. In its 24th year of publication the magazine has been honoured with the rajbhasha patrika shield samman by the rastirya hindi academy for the second time, which is a great achievement.

The credit for it goes to Tulsi Raman, a creative writer who has been editing the periodical all these years. The main reason for its success is that he always gave priority to the best works and brought it out as a national magazine.

Not only best works of Hindi writers from across the country were published but translation of highly commended works in regional and foreign languages were also given space.

It has become a forum for creative writers and litterateurs all over the country, particularly the non-Hindi speaking southern states eagerly await its issues. 



Congregation of the divine
The celebration of Dussehra in Kullu on the conclusion of the festival in the plains is a mystery for which no historic background is available
Tushima Bhatt
Tribune News Service

Located in Himachal Pradesh, the Himalayan jewel, Kullu, was once known as Kulanthpitha, ‘the end of the habitable world’. Beyond rise the forbidding heights of the greater Himalaya, and by the banks of the shining Beas, lay the fabled Silver Valley or the valley of the living gods.

Dussehra, commemorating the victory of Rama over Ravana, is celebrated all over India, but the dussehra of Kullu has got its own significance. When dussehra celebrations come to an end in the rest of the country, they begin at Kullu.

  Kul devta on the move

A camp for devotees at Dhalpur maidan
A camp for devotees at Dhalpur maidan

The Devta’s come from various corners of the Kullu valley as remote as places like Shakti, Nirmund and insides of the Seraj Valley. One of the things that they refuse to do is to ride on vehicles. Whenever an attempt has been made to do so some tragedy has happened. Once it happened with devi from Nirmund who like any other God or Goddess like to walk to meet people and enjoy the beauty. However as the team was getting late they put the rath (chariot) on the jeep and met with an accident just 20 km short of Kullu where 5 people died on the spot. One can call this coincidence or faith, but the devtas ride on people from their village. This journey may go on for weeks for devtas coming from far off lands, but paying homage to Raghunathji is of prime importance.

Kullu dussehra, the great congregation of the divine and the temporal, commences on the 10th day of the rising moon on vijayadashmi day itself.

It is a weeklong fair and this year it would start on October 9. It is a beautiful amalgam of history, rich culture and customs. There is no retelling of the Ramayana. Unlike other regions of India here effigies of Ravana, Meghnath and Kumbhakarana are not burnt.

Over 600 local deities come to pay homage to Lord Raghunathji. Enthusiasm marks the festival, with every road leading to Dhalpur Maidan thronged by gaily-dressed, good-humoured crowds, folk dances, exhibitions, cultural programs are held to mark the festivities. 

It all started back in 1637 A. D. when Raja Jagat Singh was the ruler of the Valley. One day he came to know that a peasant Durga Dutt of village Tipri owned beautiful pearls, which the Raja wanted to obtain.

Durga Dutt tried to convince the Raja by all means that the information was wrong and that he owned no pearls, but all his pleas were in vain.

The Raja gave him a last chance. Durga Dutt got so scared that he burnt down his own family and house and cursed the Raja for his cruelty. His curse resulted in Raja’s leprosy and as he realised the fact he felt guilty.

Kishan Das known as Fuhari Baba advised him to install the famous idol of Lord Raghunathji to get rid of the curse of the peasant. He sent Damodar Dass to steal the idol from Tret Nath Temple of Ayodhya who finally brought it from there in July 1651 A. D.
Visitors gather for Dussehra festivities at Kullu
Visitors gather for Dussehra festivities at Kullu

After installing the idol he drank ‘charnamrit’ of the idol for several days and was in due course cured. He devoted his kingdom and life for the lord and from then onwards Dusshera started being celebrated with great splendour.

Thus, on the first fortnight of ashwin month (mid September to mid October), the Raja invites all the gods and goddesses of the valley to Dhalpur to perform a Yagna in Raghunathji’s honour.

On the first day of dusshera Goddess Hadimba of Manali comes down to Kullu. She is the goddess of the royal family of Kullu. At the entrance of Kullu the royal stick welcomes her and escorts her to the palace where the royal family awaits her at the entrance of the palace. Thereafter they enter the palace only when goddess Hadimba calls them inside. After blessing the royal family she comes to Dhalpur. The idol of Raghunathji is saddled around Hadimba and placed in a ratha (chariot) adorned beautifully is led by the Kullu Raja. Then they wait for the signal from Mata Bhekhli, which is given from top of the hill.

Next the ratha is pulled with the help of ropes from its original place to another spot where it stays for the next six days. The local people regard pulling of ropes sacred. This forms a huge procession. The male members of the royal family leave the palace and stay in the dusshera ground. 

All the gods and goddesses mounted on colorful palanquins participate in this procession, also known as the running of the Gods. Idols of these deities are brought from different parts of Kullu and adjoining Mandi District and are kept at a camp at Dhalpur area. And, the people who carry the deities here also camp along with them.

These people are then formally invited to come for the Dussehra festivities by the State Government, which pays them an incentive that range from Rs.10, 000 to Rs.70, 000. The grand festival also draws a lot of tourists. The ceremony feels as if the doors of heaven have been opened and the gods have come down to the earth to rejoice.

On the sixth day of the festival, the assembly of gods takes place, which is called ‘mohalla’. It is an impressive and a rare sight to see the multihued palanquins of gods around the camp of Raghunathji.

On the last day, the rath is again pulled to the banks of Beas where a pile of thorn bushes is set on fire to depict the burning of Lanka. The rath is brought back to its original place. Raghunathji is taken back to the temple of Sultanpur and is followed by the sacrifice of a buffalo, a rooster, a lamb, a fish and a crab. 

The attendant gods also disperse for their destinations. People usually dance the whole night through. While the religious faith and devotion of people add serenity to the festival during morning hours, mirth and excitement mark the evenings. Thus world famous dusshera comes to an end in a dignified way, full of festivities and grandeur. 

Apart from religious ceremonies, the fair is also noted for colourful and vigorous dances of the state and several other types of entertainments, which keep the separators enthralled. The people remain busy buying, selling, singing and dancing during all the seven days of the festival.

It is the meeting ground for local troupes of singers, dancers and musicians. The celebrations centre on performances by various groups. Rituals, graceful natti dances and folk songs are performed over the remaining days.

As it commences from the last day of the dussehra in the plains thereby gives time for the plains-men to be here for trade.

Traders set up stalls to sell woollen shawls, caps, blankets and pillan (traditional footwear made from plant fibre and goat hair). This is the best time to see the carts characteristic to the Kullu Valley.

The Dhalpur grounds are full of vendors who come from different parts of the country to sell their goods. Various government organisations and private agencies also set up various exhibitions concerning their line of work. At night thousands of people witness the international cultural festival in Kala Kendra (an open-air theatre). Classical and light music concerts and modern drama are presented on every evening in the weeklong festivities.

The reason behind this timing of dussehra might be so adjusted so as to be in the last brightest days of the weather, after which the bleak winter started, closing all the high passes and restricting movements. 

The celebration of dussehra in Kullu on the conclusion of the festival in the plains is a mystery for which no historic background is available. 

The gods of Kullu are the richest. Villagers save and donate a lot of their hard earned money for the God who usually is made up of solid gold. The Gods of the Kullu valleys are also very human. They have friends and enemies. They like to travel from village to village and also go on pilgrimages. They are beautifully kept in temples that are usually the highest buildings in the village and are also very rich.



Film on Malana gets raw deal
Rakesh Lohumi
Tribune News Service

Maker of the award winning documentary “In search of Malana”, the only film made on the village famous for the world’s oldest surviving democratic system, unique culture and autonomous administration, is a disappointed man. His plan to get the film screened during the international Dussehra festival has gone haywire because of the callous attitude of the Kullu administration. He desperately wanted the people to see his work, which has become a vital document on the life in the village, a major portion of which was devoured by fire last winter.

It took over four years for Vivek to shoot the film as it required a lot of persuasion and tact to capture the life of a village that had been all through averse to joining the main stream and where outsiders were not welcome. He was able to complete the film by 1998, and it was conferred the President’s National Award in 1999. The fire-ravaged village as it existed for centuries is alive only in the celluloid today.

His idea for holding a film festival during the state’s biggest cultural event was well received and during his visit to Shimla in May everyone seemed to be excited about it. He was asked to send a proposal, which he did as soon as he returned to Mumbai. However, since then all his efforts to get a response from the Kullu district authorities failed to evoke a response. The only answer he got after a lot of follow-up on telephone and e-mails was that a decision would be taken by the festival organising committee.

He was asked to contact again at the end of September but ultimately nothing happened. Vivek, who hails from Shimla, says he was hurt because of the raw deal meted out to him in his own state. This is despite the fact that the matter had been even discussed with the MLA from Kulu who was very positive about it. If the Mysore Dussehra festival can have a film festival why the Kullu Dussehra could not have one?, he asks with  a sense of anguish.

It would have been worthwhile to show to not only tourists but also the locals the inaccessible and secluded ancient habitation, which had been visited only by a handful of people all these years. More so, because a good part of the valuable heritage, particularly the typical hill architecture, has been lost.

Being a Himachali, Vivek has been mostly focussing on the hill state. Malana was his debut venture and his second documentary   “For Whom the Jingle Bells Toll” highlighted the environmental concerns and cautioned against its disastrous consequences. His last film “Spot the Difference” was entirely shot in Shimla.





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