Thursday, June 21, 2018
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Human cells are first responders to repair damaged DNAs
Photo for representation only.

Human cells are first responders to repair damaged DNAs

21 Jun 2018 | 12:16 PM

WASHINGTON DC: A new study revealed that the cells are the first responders in the human body, which repairs the damaged DNA.

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Washington DC, June 21

A new study revealed that the cells are the first responders in the human body, which repairs the damaged DNA.

The findings are timely, as scientists are delving into genome editing with the DNA-cutting enzyme, CRISPR-Cas9, to treat diseases or to advance scientific knowledge about humans, plants, animals and other organisms, said Irene Chiolo.

Chiolo and her team of researchers using fluorescent markers tracked damaged DNA in fruit fly cells and mouse cells; it revealed that the cell launches an emergency response to repair broken DNA strands from a type of tightly-packed DNA, heterochromatin.

"Heterochromatin is also referred to as the 'dark matter of the genome,' because so little is known about it," said Chiolo.

"But DNA damage in heterochromatin is likely a major driving force for cancer formation," she added.

The scientists found that after the DNA strands are broken, the cell launches a series of threads- nuclear actin filaments in order to assemble and create a temporary highway to the edge of the nucleus.

It is here that the protein known as myosins (a.k.a. paramedics) comes into play.

"Myosins are conveyed as a walking molecule because they have two legs. One is attached and the other moves. It's like a molecular machine that walks along the filaments," she said.

The myosins pick up injured DNA strands and walk them along the filament road and then reach the emergency room which is located at the periphery of the nucleus.

"We knew, based on our prior study, that there was an emergency room — the nuclear pore where the cell fixes its broken DNA strands. Now, we have discovered how the damaged DNA travels there" Chiolo said.

She pointed out that the damage triggers a defense mechanism that quickly builds the actin filament while getting the myosin ready for further action.

The researchers plan further studies examining the repair of DNA in heterochromatin.

"I'm excited to see how the molecular mechanisms we uncovered work in humans, as well as in plants that have much larger heterochromatin. It will be fascinating to see how such a complex repair mechanism functions and evolves over time and what aspects of the mechanisms may be adapted for other functions," said Christopher Caridi, a co-lead author for the study and a postdoctoral researcher in Chiolo's lab at USC Dornsife.

The study appears in Nature Journal. — ANI.

NASA's Curiosity rover captures photos of Mars dust storm

NASA's Curiosity rover captures photos of Mars dust storm

21 Jun 2018 | 11:54 AM

WASHINGTON: NASA's Curiosity rover has beamed back pictures of a dust storm that has engulfed much of Mars over the last two weeks and prompted NASA's Opportunity rover to suspend science operations, the US space agency said on Thursday.

Facebook testing subscriptions for private groups

Facebook testing subscriptions for private groups

21 Jun 2018 | 9:42 AM

SAN FRANCISCO: Facebook will soon let group administrators charge members for providing exclusive content on its platform.

Novel algorithm can predict who will win a debate

Novel algorithm can predict who will win a debate

20 Jun 2018 | 12:23 PM

WASHINGTON: Scientists have designed an algorithm that can predict who will emerge as a winner of a debate, by identifying features of a strong argument.

Amazon Alexa assisting NASA become smarter at work

Amazon Alexa assisting NASA become smarter at work

20 Jun 2018 | 11:12 AM

WASHINGTON: While you are busy giving Alexa commands to play your favourite song or book an Uber, the intelligent virtual assistant from Amazon is helping the US space agency organise daily tasks while making sense of intrinsic data-sets.

Google kills feature to book Uber rides through Maps

Google kills feature to book Uber rides through Maps

19 Jun 2018 | 12:27 PM

SAN FRANCISCO: Google has reportedly killed the ability of direct Uber ride booking from inside Google Maps without giving any reason.

Android Messages apes WhatsApp with this new addition

Android Messages apes WhatsApp with this new addition

19 Jun 2018 | 12:23 PM

CALIFORNIA: Google has finally added a much useful feature to its Android Messages app that allows you to send messages from your computer.

iPhones to soon automatically share your location with 911

iPhones to soon automatically share your location with 911

19 Jun 2018 | 10:43 AM

SAN FRANCISCO: iPhone users in the US who call 911 will be able to automatically and securely share their location data with first emergency responders, beginning later this year with iOS 12.

Mammals going nocturnal to avoid humans: Study

Mammals going nocturnal to avoid humans: Study

17 Jun 2018 | 12:04 PM

LOS ANGELES: Human activity is causing the planet's mammals to flee daylight for the protection of night, a study has found.

Volcano music may help detect eruptions

Volcano music may help detect eruptions

16 Jun 2018 | 9:41 PM

WASHINGTON: A volcano in Ecuador with a deep cylindrical crater may be the largest musical instrument on Earth, producing unique sounds that could help scientists monitor eruptions, finds a study.

Over 100 exoplanets with potentially habitable moons identified

Over 100 exoplanets with potentially habitable moons identified

15 Jun 2018 | 2:13 PM

LOS ANGELES: Scientists have identified more than 100 giant planets existing outside our solar system that may potentially host moons capable of supporting life.

Smartphone use during family time may affect your kids' behaviour

Smartphone use during family time may affect your kids' behaviour

14 Jun 2018 | 4:10 PM

WASHINGTON: Parents, take note! Using smartphones during family activities such as meals, playtime, and bedtime may lead your children to show frustration, hyperactivity, whining, and sulking, according to a study.

Apple closing iPhone security gap used by law enforcement agencies

Apple closing iPhone security gap used by law enforcement agencies

14 Jun 2018 | 4:15 PM

SAN FRANCISCO: Apple is closing a security gap that allowed outsiders to pry personal information from locked iPhones without a password.

Block play can improve kids' math skills

Block play can improve kids' math skills

13 Jun 2018 | 6:05 PM

NEW DELHI: Playing with blocks may help preschool-age children improve their mathematical skills and the ability to pay attention, a study has found.

NASA's Mars rover contacts Earth despite worsening dust storm

NASA's Mars rover contacts Earth despite worsening dust storm

12 Jun 2018 | 4:05 PM

WASHINGTON: NASA scientists have successfully received a transmission from the Mars Opportunity rover—a positive sign despite the worsening dust storm that has left science operations on the red planet suspended.

People with wrinkles around eyes perceived more sincere

People with wrinkles around eyes perceived more sincere

12 Jun 2018 | 2:52 PM

TORONTO: People who get wrinkles around their eyes while smiling or frowning are perceived by others as more sincere, according to a study.

All your Facebook moments now in one place

All your Facebook moments now in one place

12 Jun 2018 | 10:33 AM

SAN FRANCISCO: Facebook has launched a new dedicated page called "Memories" that will keep moments you shared with friends and family over the years at a single place.

World's largest iceberg set to disappear after 18-year-long journey

World's largest iceberg set to disappear after 18-year-long journey

11 Jun 2018 | 12:50 PM

WASHINGTON: The largest iceberg ever recorded, that broke away from Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf 18 years ago, could be nearing the end of its voyage, according to NASA.

Star system with three Earth-sized planets discovered

Star system with three Earth-sized planets discovered

11 Jun 2018 | 12:48 PM

LONDON: Scientists have discovered two new planetary systems, one of which hosts three Earth-sized planets.

This technique can image over 10,000 genes at once

This technique can image over 10,000 genes at once

10 Jun 2018 | 12:46 PM

NEW YORK: In a new breakthrough research, scientist have found a technique to image more than 10,000 genes at once within individual cells.

Milky Way disc much bigger than thought

Milky Way disc much bigger than thought

10 Jun 2018 | 1:30 PM

LONDON: It would take us 200,000 years to cross the disc of our galaxy if we could travel at the speed of light, say scientists who found that the disc of the Milky Way is bigger than thought.

NASA extends Juno's Jupiter mission until July 2021

NASA extends Juno's Jupiter mission until July 2021

09 Jun 2018 | 5:26 PM

WASHINGTON: With NASA's Juno spacecraft needing more time to gather the mission's required data, the US space agency has decided to extend its science operations until July 2021, making way for the probe to spend three more years in orbit around Jupiter.

Now repost Instagram 'Stories' you are tagged in

Now repost Instagram 'Stories' you are tagged in

08 Jun 2018 | 12:04 PM

SAN FRANCISCO: Facebook-owned Instagram announced a change to its "Stories" feature which will allow users to instantly repost a "Story" they are tagged in, as theirs.

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