The Tribune - Spectrum

Inside Bill Gates empire
by Chandra Mohan

The Microsoft Edge
by Julie Bick. Pocket Books,
New York. Pages 172. Rs 715.

MICROSOFT'S rise to the status of the most valuable company in the world has not been a fluke, nor even a smooth ride all the way. While its seeds might have lain in Apple’s Macintosh or the Windows concept from Xerox’s famous Palo Alto Centre for Advanced Research, its phenomenal growth is a result of Bill Gates focus on making a PC-user’s life easy, even fun. And to deliver that basic thought he has built a creative organisation driven by a missionary zeal.

Microsoft’s process begins with hiring the best talent and provide it a sizzling hard-driving environment which challenges creative instincts to the core. Time pressure to deliver is phenomenal. Quite often, even two competing teams are set up to work on alternate approaches to begin with. Long-term commitment is ensured through bonuses and stock options. Talent is placed in right slots and slots changed to ensure peak performance.

While pioneering creativity is deliberately encouraged, it is also recognised that every new concept is not business. This translation requires discipline, patience and hard work which in turn requires a different mind-set. Microsoft’s success lies in making an effective blend of these two things. Before any new creative dream is cleared for full-scale back-up, there is deep questioning into (a) those who are going to use this technology and when will the products be ready; (b) the business mode and who competitors are; (c) the competitive advantages; (d) distribution of the products; and (e) the outlook after five years.

The crucial aspect governing the commercial success of any new product is marketing. Their analysis of market and segmentation is deep. It includes customer segmentation, launching styles and publicity. Each aspect is tailored to a specific product.

As Microsoft’s financial strength has multiplied over the years, publicity has become a power-house blitz. But whatever strategy is adopted, financial goals remain paramount. The overall goals of the corporation have to be met. Targets and timing has to be right. Even teaming up with competitors has been resorted to out only when warranted.

Microsoft had missed the Internet bus completely. It is well known that Ballmer’s discovery of web transformation of the information world was accidental and sketchy. But once recognition dawned, Microsoft went full steam ahead to catch it up. It took a few years to league in to Netscape and margins have been steadily narrowing in the past three years.

The technological and financial strenggth have been major factors in the catch up. Progression of new features to entice customers permanently — promotion blitz and creating new user communities through chat-shows and information exchange.

Seeding of influential customers, value of high profile testimonials and sneaky previews under nondisclosure agreements, partnerships and alliances were valued tools in the success game. Momentum to remain in the news is sustained Carefully crafted global network of friends in right places has helped, even for quashing criticism of failures when required.

Early partnerships with vendors, advertising agencies, even discerning user groups in new product development has been another success factor. The end result is full integration of both product and its market launch and subsequent propulsion.

With five years of insider view in Microsoft marketing, Bick’s neatly presented story is valuable. Now that web sites and e-commerce have captured every one’s mind, this book is a must-read lesson for entrepreneurs. It could be an excellent guide to translating their own dream to success.

Experiential Marketing

By Bernd H. Schmitt. The Free Press, New York. Pages 280. Rs 726.

MARKETING in today’s competitive and knowledge-driven society has acquired an entirely new dimension. With hundreds of competing products of equal quality, customers are no longer attracted by hard facts that the product keeps hair healthy, horse-power and a 10-speed gearbox, calorie-free delicious meal. Customers buy products only if they enrich life and provide enjoyment. Possession has to become a valuable experience.

What is this experience? Experience is a private and personal emotion which occurs in response to external stimuli. It involves one’s entire living being. It begins with direct excitement of his senses and builds into participation in a vision, a real or virtual dream. To be successful in such a market, managers must create such an experience. And, this is where modern marketing is moving into.

In this book Schmitt analyses the psychology of this experience and the stimuli which can create this experience. Originating in senses, strategic experiential module (SEM) leads through feelings which trigger thinking which end up in action which relates to the total conscious and sub-conscious mind.

Marketing thus begins with initial attraction, an appeal to the senses: visual, sound, taste, touch, and smell. One can see the investment and pains that are taken today to lure the customer in a sea of competing products.

Design of logos, packaging, advertisements, their content has changed radically. Focus has shifted away from hard product facts, to impacts on life-style and membership of exclusive clubs of the elite.

The desire to move upward in the social club is innate and this requires perception of mind and soul in their totality. To succeed, products have to transport you into a new dream-world when possession becomes an obsession and life without appears meaningless.

Look at what Shahnaz Hussain has done to our women in the past two decades. Facials, make-up and hair-style have become dominating aspirations. They raise self-confidence and appeal 10-notches. Or, see what Nike has done to the mundane Bata sneakers of our childhood. Could one ever imagine a 2000-rupee sneaker with all the fancy air-cushioned soles, lights and bells 20 years ago? Children no longer want the good old black-bike; they look for the fancy sports models with their weird handles and rainbow hues. Cars and designer clothes again are the status symbol of a man who has arrived.

This leads to the necessity of a new culture in organisations, the culture of creativity. It means induction of a new spirit, a new theme to permeate every individual. It means another level of understanding the customer: his psyche and his emotions. It means deeper segmentation of age-groups, social strata, community and nationality. Each has its do’s and don’ts; each has its own mind. A product, or a marketing approach, which is eminently successful in the USA might fall flat in China. Why is the market share of US-made cars in the USA itself declining despite a decade-long restoration of competitiveness, while that of imports rising?

All this leads to the creation of a new organisational sensitivity for deeper understanding of customers followed by action to deliver. A new theme has to lead the organisation: From new logos, stationery and ads, to new products and packaging, ending up with new ways of marketing, servicing and show-room display. Every facet has to acquire a new ambience.

Schmitt dwells at length on each of these aspects. Illustrations from many products and companies across the world support his discussion. Excellent practical knowledge for the emerging world of cut-throat competition. Top


Indian male is dissected andfound wanting
by Himmat Singh Gill

The Indian Man by Sandhya Mulchandani. Picus Books, New Delhi. Pages 181. Rs 175.

Many Indias, Many Literatures edited by Sharmishtha Panja. Worldview Publications, New Delhi. Pages 210. Rs 125.

TWO tastefully produced paperbacks by two relatively new publishing houses make engrossing reading. Let us take "The Indian Man" from Ashok Chopra’s Picus first, which is dedicated by the Delhi-based author to "all long-suffering men". That just about sets the tone of the book which seems to say that the Indian male should give up his fixation with his dominating position of the past if he is to handle the new challenges and the paradoxical situation in today’s changing society with a new breed of no-nonsense, aggressive and independent woman.

Coupled with this male dilemma is the worldwide wave of liberation and the blurring of international boundaries, leading to expanding economics where everyone must now have "a home with a Samsung fridge, a Sony television, a Maruti car in the garage and some Teacher’s Scotch whisky in the evening while watching one’s favourite programme on TV".

Sandhya very deftly covers some of the conflicts that a male would face in a society where monotony could set in early in marriage and where the educated middle class female is increasingly making more and more decisions on her own and by herself. "The discovery that they can actually go beyond being cooks and mothers is for many liberating and empowering."

Economic necessity and even otherwise, the financial independence gained by a woman who works, gives her a better sense of identity and makes her husband "listen to her more because she listens to herself more — she expresses herself and has clear-cut opinions." The male, even the liberated one, however, does express "an underlying anxiety when women set foot outside the house. With working women less available and less willing to provide emotional support and nurturing, man sees woman who works as being responsible for the collapse of the family structure," says Mulchandani.

She goes on to state that most men do not want their women to work because of the "loss of the anchor person, the neglect of children, homes not maintained up to the standards and even decreasing interest in sex".

In another chapter on "Work, vocation and wealth", this mother of a 12-year-old boy remarks, "It’s the ultimate irony when beautiful nature started distributing her largesse she gave man muscles, a large brain and the gift of sperms but bequeathed the gift of life to women. The split second that it takes for a sperm to meet the ova and fertilise it brings meaning for all womankind, providing them with an unquestionable role and identity for life." The long months of pregnancy and rearing of children do give the woman a "definition to their lives".

Sandhya goes on to also highlight the role of pregnancy and motherhood, a role which men are naturally deprived of and suggests what many will find it difficult to agree with "Most psychologists believe that it is this underlying frustration of not being able to bear a child that forces men to seek substitutes which might be work or other areas of creativeness."

Actually many men are quite happy with not having to themselves bear children!

While discussing the "sexual conundrum", the author highlights humourously the divergent male-female viewpoint on physical sex. "Women say they seek intimacy, not just the physical expression of it; they also say they want to feel loved and needed in thought and deed not merely in bed. Men, on the other hand, see sex as their marital right, and a denial of sex is viewed as undermining the fundamental marriage vows. While women complain that men lack sensitivity, men find that waiting until their wives are ready is like waiting for Godot!"

Sandhya sums up her apprehensions about the attitude of the Indian male toward change and tradition, and quotes a male to suggest a viable solution. "But women are in a hurry (for the change that is). They want a miracle transformation overnight and this is unrealistic. If women were smarter, they would pave the way and make it easier for man to change without getting combative."

That is about it then. The Indian female will herself have to clone her ideal male, keeping in mind his ego, sense of male supremacy and resistance to change. I enjoyed reading your book, Sandhya, but what happens to all the poor males in the rural areas, about whom you have hardly said anything?

Sharmishtha Panja’s, "Many Indias, Many Literatures" is a collection of essays covering the various forms of our literature — drama, poetry, short story, prose and other genres of fiction from the modern age to the present times. She throws open the question whether at all it is possible to have a single Indian literature. Some 19th century Indologists cultivated the notion of Indian literature being based on Sanskrit but others feel that even the presence of an unbroken line of genres, symbols and themes and the continuity of the Indian literary tradition, do not suggest a singular edifice of literature in this country. There are, of course, many others who feel that Indian literature is one, though it is written in many languages.

However, one must leave aside this major digression and come specifically down to what the masters themselves think of literature (in any language or in any form, whether poetry or prose), they they have created.

Jayanta Mahapatra, looking for ultimate "silence" as he calls it, declares in his piece titled, "Large words, a small silence", that "Somewhat hesitatingly, one feels, after years of writing, that one should give up the notion of writing poetry altogether, because this alone is what we know: that they, the words, the makers of poetry will forever remain beyond us inspite of ourselves and our paintstaking attempts to let the poems we have created tell us we would be happy with them."

He narrates how as Rabindranath Tagore moved towards his silence, he wrote some of his most brief yet telling lyrics, which Mahapatra himself has translated for us. "On the shore of the western sea/ the day’s last sun/ voiced its last question / in the stillness of dusk/ who are you?/ there was no answer."

K. Satchidanandan, secretary of the Sahitya Akademi and a major Indian poet, writing about Dalit poetry and its disregard for the middle class conventions of patriotism ("you who have made the mistake of being born in this country/must now rectify it: either leave the country or make war" — from Baburao Bagul, a Marathi poet), does on balance suggest that presently, "New phase of dalit writing seems to be more mature, sober, larger in its concerns, more conscious of form, less angry and complaining. There is even a tone of celebration of the dalit identity in the new generation poets."

In fiction, R.Raj Rao, a reader of Commonwealth literature at Pune University, discusses the novel under four heads of language and narration, structure, theme and technique and identity. He does make some very profound remarks, which it would be worth pondering over. He quotes Adil Jussawala lamenting the "two nation" theory wherein there is the real India and the imaginary India. According to him, those writers who are resident in India write about the former whereas the emigrants, metaphorically or "literally" settled abroad, write about the latter India "exoticised for western consumption, often from memory as in the case of Salman Rushdie". This, Jussawala says, "can be a treacherous exercise".

Raj Rao quotes nativists like Anantha Murthy and Nemade who would possibly opine that "Indians can write only in the regional languages and not in English", a viewpoint many including this reviewer would disagree with. However, their (the nativists’) statement, "those who write only in English and are based inIndia are nowhere men and nowhere women", is realistic from the way many creative writers or their works are treated in this country!

Writing about the genesis, context and evolution of Urdu short story, Sukrita Paul Kumar of Delhi University suggests that the art of storytelling of "daastangoi" and "kissagoi", "lay in the telling of the tale when even magic would seem real and fantasy as convincing as an actual happening". She highlights the strong Persian influence on this tradition of story- telling, where the Sufi philosophy of hikayat and rivayat weighed heavily.

Another writer Shafey Kidwai commenting upon the current trends in Urdu literature says that its "most sought-after verse genre ghazal, barring some exceptions, primarily draws its sustenance from the mundane as well as metaphysical notions of love. Cliche-ridden diction, hackneyed symbols, trite images and antiquated metaphors eloquently sum up its structure."

In "Many Indias....." some well known and some refreshingly new scholars have covered vast ground in all domains of literature. The views of Ambal, a strong feminist voice in Tamil fiction ("I never wished to be identified as a woman writer. It seemed like an inferior stamps", and again "If a woman avoids a heterosexual relationship and prefers a female partner, it is her choice"), question the "cultural construct" of the Tamil motherhood, and show that a woman’s quest for fulfilment is "embedded in her societal, historical and political context".

Sukrita Kumar elsewhere commenting on how the division of the Hindi and Urdu languages took place in free India, quotes Sadat Hasan Manto actively protesting this divide, and believes that, "the increased Sanskritisation of Hindi was probably a move towards establishing a distinct identity of the Hindi language."

This rich literary criticism concludes that many literatures exist in divergent India, and that the place of English in Indian literary studies has long been assured.Top


Books that shaped sensitivity of the age
by Bhupinder Singh

MY first foray into serious literature was Jules Verne’s "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea". I was 13, in Class VII and it left me overawed and hero-worshipping Captain Nemo who, deeply embittered with the world (I forget why) instead diverted all his energies to build a futuristic submarine called the Nautilus. This, of course, was science fiction. The world paid tributes to Captain Nemo when the first nuclear submarine was actually built in 1948 — a hundred years after it was envisaged in his, and Jules Verne’s mind. The submarine was named the "Nautilus".

But I could read only about 400 of the 700 pages of the small print. It was three years later that I read Charles Dicken’s "David Copperfield" cover to cover in original. My joy knew no bounds. The complete works of Sherlock Holmes soon followed. By the end of Class XII, I was ready to take on more serious stuff. Thus started my long affair with classical Russian literature and much else.

But I digress. I am supposed to write about the greatest books published in the 20th century, not the 19th (all three mentioned above are of the 19th century). Neither am I supposed to write on my own evolution as a bibliophile. But, however much as I would like to stick to the main theme, I cannot get either the 19th century or my own periscopic view off my back. I would, therefore, seek the reader’s indulgence in two respects.

Before discussing the 20th century books, I will briefly mention some of the books published in the 19th century. The more I think about it, the more I feel that all books that have profoundly moved me, or influenced me, are old 19th century works.

Two, the volume of books printed in the 19th century is just overwhelming, both in quantity and the range of subjects. What follows, therefore, is a collage of my readings as a layman rather than any authoritative or sweeping judgements.

The most powerful impact that any book made on me was Nikolai Chernesvesky’s "What is to be Done?". Other Russian writers like Dostoevesky, Turgnev, Saltykov- Schedrin, Pushkin, Gogol and Chekov also made a deep impact with their running concern on the role of the intellectual in shaping and changing society. Tolstoy’s "War and Peace" with its vast canvas, range of characters and the vision of history as a self-governed Gargantuan force, remains certainly the greatest novel ever written.

Marx’s "Communist Manifesto" (which I read when in Class X), "Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte" and "Capital" (specially the first three chapters of Vol. I) formed the bedrock of my subsequent convictions and beliefs. For a long time, whenever I was in doubt, the first impulse was to turn to the "Eighteenth Brumaire". The sheer clarity of expression and application of the historical method to analysis of contemporary France is education in itself, and generations have grown up learning the fundamentals of Marxist analysis from this little book.

Having said that, and with the preceding as a backdrop, the first 20th century book that comes to mind is "Mother" by Maxim Gorky (1908). Russian literature took a sharp turn with the emergence of Pavel, the first working class hero. But then it only reflected the great movement then underway in Russia that culminated in the Socialist Revolution of 1917 — the last of the great European revolutions in a period of deep political upheavals that started in 1789.

The series of pamphlets that Vladimir Lenin wrote at the time continued to resound for a major part of the remaining century, providing a political impetus that found an echo in all parts of the world. Lenin, "the man who lived politics 24 hours of the day", became the most published and most read political author in the century. His "What is to be Done?", "Two Tactics of Social Democracy", "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back" and "The State and Revolution" became compulsory reading for working class activists as well as armchair revolutionaries, for those on the Left as well as for those who came close it — and there were many.

His "April Thesis" is startling not only for its political significance but also for its length — it is hardly a few pages long — much like Marx’s "Critique of the Gotha Programme" where Marx came closest to envision a socialist society.

Much of what Lenin wrote, however, came under a cloud later in this century, not only from opponents, but also from those within the socialist movement. The most significant of these was fellow communist Antonio Gramsci’s "Prison Notebooks" that turned many a dictum on its head. Gorbachev’s Perestroika marked a significant break, even as it claimed to be a continuation of Lenin’s ideas.

In England, Raymond Williams, Christopher Hill, E.P. Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm provided excellent and insightful Marxist interpretations of history and culture. Thompson’s "The Making of the English Working Class" and Hobsbawm’s "Primitive Rebels" are landmark writings, the latter prompted, if not spawned, the subaltern school of historiography.

Closer home, D.D. Kosambi blazed a new trail in Indian historiography. A mathematician by training, his works on ancient India — though dated by today’s standards — were a watershed. His "Culture and Civilization of Ancient India" remains one of the most influential books on ancient India. "An Introduction to the Study of Indian History" continues to go into reprints decades after its first publication in 1956.

Kosambi had the onerous task of writing history in a country where written sources are sparse and local variations plentiful. It was his deep sensitivity to life that led him to extend scientific inquiry to the study of society.

His quintessentially humanistic streak is reflected in his own words. "The subtle mystic philosophies, torturous religions, ornate literature, monuments teeming with intricate sculpture and delicate music of India all derive from the same historical process that produced the famished apathy of the villager, senseless opportunism and termite greed of the ‘cultured’ strata, sullen, uncoordinated discontent among the workers, general demoralisation, misery, squalor and degrading superstition. The one is the result of the other, one is the expression of the other…it is necessary to understand that history is not a sequence of haphazard events but is made by human beings in the satisfaction of daily needs."

Others, from within and without, provided scathing indictment of Soviet society, notably Arthur Koestler’s "Darkness at Noon", Pasternak’s "Dr Zhivago" and Solznitzyn’s "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich". Koestler’s Bukharin-like character Rubashov, personified the dilemma and tragedy of those who led the revolution and then became its victims. It is astonishing that the novel was written in 1940 at all — at the height of Stalin’s power and the extremly limited information about Soviet Union outside.

The Great War of the European nations, later termed World War I, was the backdrop of "The Good Soldier Sjevk" by Jaroslav Hasek, the Czeck writer, possibly the finest satire on war written in the century. Sjevk, in his various roles, including as an orderly to numerous army officers, often lands into problems despite his good intentions and like most honest citizens of the modern world, finds himself to be a patriot, and even a ‘soldier’, more by accident than ambition. It is a hilarious and at the same time a humane novel.

It is, however, Gabriel Garcia Marquez who deserves pride of place with "One Hundred Years of Solitude". The narrative in "One Hundred Years" moves through a maze of subtle and often innocuous looking images and metaphors so that one finds the fantastical and mythical interacting with the liveing and the real. The transmission of ideas and inventions from the outside world to the small village of Macondo takes place through wandering gypsies so that what reaches them is a bunch of scattered and seemingly unrelated ideas.

The formation of the worldview of the founder of the village, Arcadio Buendia, and his successors evolves through this mixture of myth, fantasy and science through the corruption of the spoken word, mingled with songs and tales. Flying carpets and disappearing acts are a part of the hazards. The untiring and fruitless efforts of the alchemists and the dreams of the pioneers of flying transport one to the times of struggle, hope and ecstasy.

Garcia’s works, despite his impeccable roots as a writer of protest, are not propagandist. His vision of his native land is expressed in his novel "Love in the Time of Cholera", which is the story of two separated lovers who rediscover each other in old age. At one level this is a case of old age romanticised, at another, it is the romanticisation of Latin America’s tryst with destiny and a conception of a new civilisation for the continent. Suppressed for so long, denied its historical role and the seemingly unending brutality of life are sought to be reconciled in a future old age.

In the much acclaimed "The General in his Labyrinth", he profiles the George Washington of South America — Simon Bolivar in the last ten years of his life. These are days of retreat. It is the examination of a political leader who has forsaken his people —a character so familiar in Latin America because of repetition. It is a study and an indictment of weak, indecisive and dithering leadership. It is their legacy that has played havoc with Latin America. It is also the legacy which, ironically, has produced a whole body of literature recognised the world over.

Were there any worst books of the century? This is much more difficult to answer but one book that did let one down was Gandhi’s "Hind Swaraj". Gandhi is undoubtedly India’s greatest contribution to the world after the Buddha. He was a unique mass leader and one who is continuously being rediscovered by later generations. "Hind Swaraj", which he considered to be the closest to his formulation of a theoretical framework for his political ideas, was a big let-down for its antimodernism and comments that fly in the face of logic.

Finally, what does one look forward to in the coming century? There are some books that one would like to reread mainly for the nostalgic aura about them. Tintin comics that I read in school top the list. Then there are those that one either "forgot" to read or have been repeatedly postponing. Gerald Durrel’s delightful animal stories fall in this category.

Then there are others that one has not read because of ignorance and the most prominent of these is Allama Iqbal, who wrote much in Urdu but much more in Persian.

Iqbal’s stress on the development of the self came as fresh breeze, as part of his critique of Sufism, he stressed on the development of the ego or self. While Sufism emphasised the need to merge the self into the whole, Iqbal took a diametrically opposite stand — that of the development of the ego. Thence: "Tu shab afridi, charag afreedam Sayal afridi, ayagh afreedam, Man aanam ke az sang aina saazam, Man aanam ke az zahar naushina saazam."

(God, You created the night, I made the lamp, You created the earth, I made the earthen pot out of it. It is me who made mirror out of stone. It is me who made elixir out of poison.)

He is a unique poet, sung in the national songs of two countries, but ignored in one and unfairly misinterpreted in the other.

I will end by returning to the theme that I started with and my growing up in the shadow of the 19th century works. One hopes that there would be many books published in the 20th century that may still be waiting to be discovered in the new century. After all, Karl Marx, the single most powerful influence on 20th century thought. (Reuters has declared him to be the "Intellectual of the Millennium".) was little known, much less read, and still less understood outside a small circle in his own age.

The writer, 32 years old, is a software engineer.Top


Eco-destruction: the creeping disaster
by R.K. Kohli

The Environmental Debate by R.C. Das, J.K. Baral, N.C. Sahu and M.K. Mishra. APH Publishing, New Delhi. Pages xvii plus 261. Rs 600.

THE earth is the only planet in the universe to sustain life. We must, therefore, treat this planet as a home for all of us, and we must realise that its life-supporting potential is being eroded at a fast rate. This is especially so because exploding population and equally exploding consumption demands have shrunk the available land and other resources. The poor, who are in an overwhelming majority, are struggling to stay alive and the rich minority lives in luxury, and the combined effect is to destroy most of the world’s resources. Life on the planet is being sustained with very limited resources.

Further, environmental threats facing the world are so great and universal that no country or society can tackle them alone. Environmental components — air, water and land and even the biota — do not recognise the man-made political boundaries. Deforestation in the north-eastern Himalayas has led to floods in Bangladesh. The drought in Africa and deforestation in Haiti triggered an exodus of citizens and refugee problems in the neighbourhood. Acid rain had been an irritant between Russia and adjoining Europe and again between the USA and Canada for many years.

Likewise, disputes over river water sharing between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka or Punjab and Haryana or even India and Pakistan are yet to be resolved. Black rains over China, Afghanistan, Pakistan and even the Indian Himalayas were a result of burning of oil wells during the Gulf war and eco-terrorism.

It is now widely accepted that much of the current environmental problems arise from a widening gap in the consumption pattern between the rich and the poor nations. The industrialised countries comprising 23 per cent of the world’s population are harvesting about 80 per cent of the world’s resources. Overpopulation, malnutrition, unhygienic condition of living and diseases are the lot of poor societies.

In an attempt to put aside the political differences and to work towards a global partnership for achieving environmental conservation, the United Nations set up its environment programme (UNEP) in 1972. Serving as a catalyst, it aims at bridging the gap between awareness and action apart from mobilising the nations to unitedly confront common environmental problems.

A decade after its inception, it adopted the Nairobi Declaration and urged all governments and people to collectively and individually ensure that we bequeth the earth to future generations in a condition that guarantees life with dignity for all.

In the eighties the UNEP went on to identify eight specific issues — protection of atmosphere, fresh water, oceans and coastal areas; land; combating deforestation and desertification; conservation of biodiverisity and ecofriendly management of biotechnology; management of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals; and the protection of human health; and quality of life — for focusing the attention of the world.

Soon, environmentalism became a key factor in shaping international economic relations. The surprise presence of the Heads of Government and powerful delegates from almost all countries at the World Earth Summit in Rio-de-Janeiro in June,1992, was indicative of the concern of the world at large.

However, the summit witnessed an emergence of well-defined blocks based on economic status. Even countries like India and China, which are not mutually friendly at international fora, formed a group of the developing countries. The coming together of the Third World nations under the banner of Group of 77 frustrated all efforts of the North to split them.

With Europe and Australia taking a moderate stand, the USA felt isolated and dragged its feet on many crucial issues.

To discuss the divergent perceptions and approach which led to the sidetracking of the real issue of conservation by preferring national economic interests, a team of four scholars from Berhampur University in Orissa, R.C. Das, former Vice-chancellor, J.K. Baral, Professor of political science, N.C. Sahu, reader in economics and M.K. Mishra, reader in botany, have authored the book under review.

The text has been grouped into six chapters. Apart from including some of the basic ecological concepts of biosphere and general issues confronting man, the first introduces and identifies the nature and extent of the needs of the developing world and its environmental problems. The debate started in the 1970s and peaked at the earth summit in 1992, indicating the differences in the perception of two terms — "development" and "environment" — between the developing and the developed worlds.

To remove any confusion, the authors define development as a socio-economic change for achieving a set of desired goals. Accordingly, development serves as a vector of desirable objectives like economic growth, social justice, better education, improved health, access to resources and increased freedom, which society intends to maximise.

Once a nation, society, family or an individual has achieved such elements, other attributes like better quality environment, recreation, sustainability and sense of security add themselves to the meaning of development.

Even though these elements are complimentary, their relative importance may vary with each society and time. Therefore, the term remains debatable.

In fact, these are the social needs and priorities which guide the development of a country. Economic development and cultural enrichment like the other elements of development are different from each other. Unfortunately, contrasting terms such as developing/developed, poo/rich, backward/advanced or underdeveloped/developed are all based on economic parameters and not on the environmental status.

While building the argument of environmental divide and linking it with development, the authors consider the three-bloc model (the First World consisting of the capitalist countries, the Second World of the erstwhile communist countries and the Third World of the Asian, African, Latin American and the non-communist underdeveloped member countries of the UN) as irrelevant today, especially after the dismantling of the socialist bloc and the end of the cold war. However, it recognises the terms developed and the developing as initially used by the UNO.

Using the World Bank Report of 1994, the book says that 170 developing countries, as against 40 developed ones, occupy 76 per cent of the total area on this planet with a population of 85 per cent and a gross domestic product of just 21 per cent and a per capita income of just 25 per cent of the world average.

Though the authors have successfully built their argument, it baffles me why they have depended on old data for a publication of 1998. The latest World Bank, UNDP and UNEP data are readily available. Because of this reason, the book refers to the independent Federal Republics of Czech and Slovak by the undivided name of Czechoslovakia.

The second chapter tries to trace the quantum jump in the world population from one billion in 1825 to 5.6 billion in 1994. The ratio between the developed and the developing countries, as on today, has changed from 1:1 in 1825 to 1:4 in 1994 and is expected to further deteriorate to 1:9 by the year 2050.

"The crux of the sustainability challenge of the world lies here. The main debate in the first World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1984 centred on how to slow down the growth of population in the developing countries, but it faltered over the issue of abortion. The stark truth that population control programmes must be linked to the core development issues of poverty alleviation, literacy, etc. was realised only at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development.

Further, basing itself on the Human Development Index (HDI) developed by the UNDP, the book tabulates the increasing ratio of global income of the rich to the poor nations from 30:1 in 1960 to 59:1 in 1989. The chapter concludes on a sombre note that an average child in the USA consumes earth’s resources equal to 3 Italian or 13 Brazilian or 35 Indian children.

The third chapter, "Two faces of environment", attempts to deal with some of the key environmental issues on which global cooperation is necessary. These include the threat of climate change and global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, etc. After outlining the basic issues, it accuses the rich countries of emitting the maximum green house gases and ozone-destroying substances. As a percentage of the world’s total, Brazil, China and India rank the third, fourth and the fifth respectively. However, here also the authors have quoted old data from the World Resource Report of 1990-91 when those of 1997 and 1998 are readily available.

Nevertheless, the text refers to the fact that this report has been challenged by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi, on the ground of erroneous assumption since it ignored the consideration of natural cleaning facilities or "environmental sinks". Accordingly, the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted by India can be neutralised by just 6 per cent of the earth’s natural sink whereas, the emissions from the USA would require 25.7 per cent of the natural sink.

Likewise, the figure of the emission of methane from paddy fields and cattle dung from India and China has also been refuted by the CSE. The authors here rightly consider it unfair to compare "survival emissions" from the developing countries to the "luxury emissions" from the developed ones. The chapter also discusses the problem of acid rain, management of fresh water and wetlands, oceans and land apart from sharing the views on the fast depleting biological diversity and the implication of the WTO.

The debate on economy versus ecology, on which the world is sharply divided, has been discussed in the next chapter. It quotes from "Environmental and Resource Economics", a book by Michael Commons, "Environmental problems are not the consequences of economic growth as such, but they are the consequences of inappropriate patterns of economic activity, if the economy-environment relationships are determined by a properly functioning price mechanism."

Some problems (inadequate sanitation, nonavailability of clean water, land degradation, etc.) are associated with the lack of economic growth while others (like industrial and energy-related pollution of water and air) get exacerbated because of fast and unsustainable rate of development.

Unless development is guided by environmental considerations, it will never be sustainable. Indisputedly, both economic development and environmental conservation are for the people.

An interesting analysis of the divide on the basis of the economic status of countries has been attempted in the fifth chapter entitled "Green diplomacy: Rio and after". The Rio summit was on the relationship between environment and development. However, the developing countries attached importance to development while the developed ones to environment. The role of the developed countries in the post-summit period has been to link environment and development with the primary objective of increasing their own wealth rather than removing the root cause of poverty in the developing countries.

The book also highlights the role of the NGOs in articulating the demands with skill and sophistication. As a result of their diplomatic offensive marginalised groups like women and local communities have found a place on the global agenda.

In the last chapter, "Towards an international order", the authors point out that the international community has now reached a consensus that the environmental threats are real and pervasive. Environment can be damaged not only by fast economic growth but also by lack of economic development. It, therefore, demands sustainable development which is socially and environmentally sound.

The situation, the book says, has become easy for the developing countries. Their development invites environmental hazards, while the lack of development threatens poverty-related environmental problems. The rich North during its phase of development did not have such a precarious situation, because the countries were (and even now are) getting buttressed by large-scale depletion of resources (even brain drain) of the poor South. The developing countries do not enjoy the advantage of developing at the cost of environment.

While concluding, the authors propose an action programme to bring about a new environmental order. This, according to them, should be at four levels — the developed world, the developing world, global agencies and the NGOs. The order expects the developed countries to move towards disarmament, cut down their consumption, reduce their luxuries and help the development of poor countries in letter and spirit. The developing countries, on the other hand, must control their population, check their religious, racial and other conflicts, reduce their defence expenditure and pool their resources and skills.

The book is highly useful for environmentalists, decision-makers and intellectuals. However, it would have been more informative had it contained the latest data. The book makes interesting reading even though its price of Rs 600 seems injudiciously high. Top


Women’s woes inside and outside home
Write view
by Randeep Wadehra

Women Problems and Their Oppression by Nirula Singh. APH, New Delhi. Pages xxv plus 152. Rs 400.

WOMEN came into sharp focus in the 90s. Literature on, by and for them was feverishly churned out, giving an impression of an earnest attempt to unwrap the enigma that woman, especially Indian woman, is. Or, perhaps the trend was an early indication that the new millennium belongs to woman. However, despite the progress made in the various fields, women are still facing problems of various kinds.

One can notice discrimination against them right since their birth. A son’s arrival sparks celebration, while a daughter is welcomed with a deafening silence if not suppressed mourning. Barring exceptions a son gets preference over a daughter in the matter of education, participation in sports, food and clothing and a share in family property. After marriage, no matter if they are employed or not, women have little say in the family’s decision-making.

Again, women have little or no say in the purchase or disposal of family assets. Not that there are no laws that protect their interests. These laws are observed more in violation than compliance. Similarly, at work places, women are often discriminated against. They have to be twice as good as their male colleagues to get their promotion and recognition.

Nirula Singh has, in this study, looked at the condition of women in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during the period 1900 to 1950. The author justifies her choice of the period as it saw "most happening reforms and events". The study does not differentiate women on the basis of their social stratum — landlord or peasant family. It considers them a homogenous social entity — an obstacle in drawing meaningful conclusions. The book also ignores Muslim women — an important segment in UP, especially during the time chosen by the author. Considering the outlines set by the author to research the social conditions of women, one will have to consider the conclusion in comparison with other empirical studies taken up with a larger canvas.

It has become a habit, almost a ritual, for our scholars to quote Manu, while dealing with women’s issues. Nirula is no exception. What the author forgets is that Manu Smriti is neither the final word nor was it ever a popular prescription with the masses or the elite.

Otherwise how does one explain the practice of "swayamwar", polyandry and matriarchal societies in several parts of India, including UP? Again she quotes a verse from the Atharva Veda that roughly states, "The birth of girl, grant it elsewhere, here grant a son". It is conveniently overlooked that our scriptures were composed when society was totally dependent on agriculture. Males were sought, as brawn was more in demand then.

Conversely, women were often addressed with "shree" as prefix or suffix. As we all know, "shree" stands for the goddess of wealth as well as for general well-being. It was a mark of respect. This is not to say that everything was fine with women in the hoary past.

However, it would have been more useful if the author had analysed the condition of women circa 1950-51 in the context of their present status. She could have also tried to find out whether women were better off in the past or not. Nevertheless, the book can be the basis for further research into the woman’s quest for self-discovery. For example, what impelled Kamla Das to become Sorayya Begum at the tender age of 62?

Social, Cultural & Economic History of Himachal Pradesh by M.S. Ahluwalia. Indus Publish-ing, New Delhi. Pages 200. Rs 350.

For ages, the magnificent Himalayas has attracted people of different callings. Sages and tourists, conquerors and fugitives, romantics and explorers have been coming in droves to seek whatever their desires and imaginations prompted them to. Of course, Himachal Pradesh, or the mythical Dev Bhoomi, has been an age-old abode of spiritual India. Historians like Hutchinson and Vogel have immortalised the region in their two-volume treatise, "History of the Punjab Hill States". Innumerable monographs and research papers have come out depicting the fascinating social, cultural and spiritual wealth in the state.

In 1930, G.E. Lewis of Yale University had first discovered hominids in the Shivalik Hills. Archaeologists believe that as early as two million years ago, at least one form of man lived in the Banganga-Beas valleys of Kangra, the Sirsa-Sutlej valleys of Nalagarh-Bilaspur, and the Markanda valley of Sirmaur.

According to Ahluwalia, though the Indus valley civilisation had extended up to the Himalayan foothills, the upper reaches were peopled by the Munda-speaking Kolorian tribes. Later on Aryan and Mongolian ethnic groups settled in the region.

The author has diligently enumerated the political and cultural history of the region like the rise and fall of tribal republics, the influence of the Gupta empire, etc. After touching briefly the modern history of Himachal Pradesh, Ahluwalia has given details of important fairs, religious practices and social mores prevailing in the region.

He also dwells on the evolution of art and architecture over a period of time. Overall, a valuable addition to your collection.

Jewel in the Lotus by Mumtaz Ali. Sterling, New Delhi. Pages 161. Rs 90.

Indian thought defies definition. This is because, on the one hand, it is a vast collection of diverse, sometimes conflicting, philosophies and, on the other, it is a continuously evolving and living concept. Sifting, assimilating and discarding various dogmas and views is a never-ending process. Consequently, for the uninitiated our philosophy can be confusing and awe inspiring.

However, its essence remains simple and invigorating. Otherwise, how does one explain that those who used to condemn Hindus as fatalists at one time, eventually realised that a legion of karmayogis — inspired by the Bhagwad Gita — set about repairing the crumbling edifice of this once majestic society? Those who call us escapists forget that we are the only society which accepts reality in totality, warts and all. We don’t hide behind well-crafted facades.

This is what prompts us to take up cudgels against such social aberrations as sati, child marriage, etc. True, for almost a millennium we remained in slavery, but the vigour of our spirit manifested itself in the reawakening that now pervades our polity. It will take some time for us to come to terms with our drawbacks but come we will.

It is the multi-hued splendour of Hinduism that has attracted a secularist like Mumtaz Ali. He is well versed in both Islamic and Hindu scriptures. In this book he deals with the essence of Hinduism, the Gayatri mantra, the concept of kundalini, Vedanta and yoga, among other things. After reading the book one feels impelled to go on a journey of spiritual self-discovery. Strongly recommended to those who seek solace in matters spiritual.

A College Teacher’s Crusade by Teja Singh. Parveen Publication, Rohtak. Pages 152. Rs 210.

There was a time when the guru, or teacher, was held in high esteem in society. But that was long ago. To be a teacher was a privilege in itself. Monetary benefits were of secondary consideration. His primary concern was to see that he imparts the best possible education to his pupils.

He would rejoice in their success and talk proudly of their achievements in their later life. In return, the pupils worshipped their teacher. In fact the guru was given a more exalted status than even God as exemplified in Kabir’s couplet, "Guru Gobind douoo khade, ka kay lagoon paye/ Balihari guru aapno jin Gobind diyo bataye."

However, times have changed. The guru has fallen from his grand pedestal for reasons attributable to his conduct as well as the changes wrought in society. Materialism has certainly taken its toll. Teja Singh claims that his book enumerates his "crusade" for the benefit of his profession.

However, the book deals with the Punjab and Haryana college teachers’ struggle to get pecuniary benefits. There is a lot of politics in this struggle. Nowhere does the author mention any attempt made to improve the standards in educational institutions in the region.

Nowhere are the interests of students even acknowledged. Yet Teja Singh uses the high falutin adjective "crusade" for his political-pecuniary struggle! You can read this book if you are interested in trade unionism.Top


Why you must keep your nose clean?
by Priyanka Punia

Smell by Radhika Jha. Viking-Penguin India, New Delhi. Pages 290. Rs 395.

WHAT happens when all you hold dear is lost?When the security of your home and the loved ones is suddenly taken away from you in one decisive stroke of fate, leaving you to fend for yourselves among strangers and a completely new environment? When your power of smell, hitherto a unique asset, becomes a curse, driving you to the edge of insanity?

"Smell", a deeply complex novel, hurls these questions and much more at you.

After her father is killed in Nairobi, lissom Leela is sent off to her childless uncle’s place in Paris while her mother and brothers take refuge with a relative in London. Desolate and lonely, she endures each dreary, cheerless day in the hope that her mother would soon send for her.

However, the news of her mother’s remarriage comes as a warning that her life would never be the same again.

Unable to forgive her "treacherous" mother and the hope of a reunion with her family having gone, she blocks her memory and at a subconscious level begins to reinvent herself.

From then onwards, her life becomes a series of runs.She continuously runs away from one place to another and from one debilitating relationship to another to find some meaning in her life.

Her metamorphosis from an innocent girl to a compulsive tease is striking and utterly final.

Buffeted by and alienated from life, she is caught in a crazy rigmarole which is set in motion by her strong sensitivity to smell, which is the motif of the novel.

Earlier, when she tried to smell herself, she could smell nothing. But in her transition and moments of crisis and insecurity she begins to smell of "a dark feral smell, too strong to the civilised, too powerful to be hidden. A smell so shameless, it belonged to the night or to those private moments of solitude that cannot be shared."

The smell begins to haunt her and surfaces when she least expects. "Sometimes as I rose to go to the bathroom, it would creep out of the sheets with me. Or when I went to the supermarket, it would whistle past me in the aisle filled with people..... Only the smell followed me dark as a shadow, ugly, hungry and jealous."

Leela starts from wanting to be invisible, an unobserved minuscule part of the universe — to simply melt in the crowd. So much so that a rat becomes her friend — her "personal totem". But with her transition comes the desire to be famous. She begins to ruthlessly cut the "bonds of the old world to enter the new".

Radhika Jha’s conceptualisation and use of words are brilliant. She lends something so abstract as smell a sinister character which hungrily devours anything that comes in its way.

She has an astonishing ability to describe a simple, mundane act of wine tasting as an elaborate affair. "The wine smelt at once sweet and spicy.....and sour and earthy...... The smell filled my nostrils, delicate but well-formed as a gazelle. Then I took a sip. The wine slid across my tongue like oil, and slipped effortlessly down my throat. Underneath its silky coat, I could feel the muscle that held the various elements of it together. The smell gathered force after I had swallowed it, the warm juices that had been hiding beneath my tongue rushing into it, lifting it up and warming it so that the fumes rose through my throat, once again climbing the dark nasal tunnels to my brain."

At another place she describes it thus:"The wine tasted thin and green, like gooseberries and freshly mowed grass. I felt the liquid cutting through the layers of food in my mouth, erasing their memory from my palate. Soon it would enter my brain, erasing the memory of the evening from my mind."

There is another twist in the tale. Towards the end, she knows the smell keeps coming back, only this time she can’t smell it. This realisation drives her over the edge. She feels unwanted and ostracised. "My smell surrounds me like a shroud, rotten and sweatly fermenting. My body is worse than a garbage truck. Unlike the truck which is open to the sky, and to which men cling every day, my smell stays bottled up inside me....oozing out of my pores like some dreaded chemical waste that no one will touch."

However, she meets two persons who show her the way out of the bottomless pit and give her the strength to stand alone again. One is a dog walker, confined to a wheelchair, and the other a puppeteer. The farmer tells her that "no one needs other people. You just need something to love."

The latter, whose puppets are often broken by an unruly crowd but who keeps getting new ones made, sets her free of her fears saying, "You don’t smell. You’ve never smelt. It is just your fear talking. You fear that you will once more be rejected."

Transformed yet again, she opens her heart to life and goes back to Olivier, her old friend who could have been her lover.

Written in first person, "Smell" is packed with tension which builds up as each chapter unfolds.Its redeeming feature is the rich, evocative language and the hope which comes through.Top


Headlong into the wrong world
by Bhupinder Brar

Capitalism in the Age of Globalisation by Samir Amin. Madhyam Books, Delhi. Pages xii+158. Rs 175.

AMONG the best-known theoreticians of global economic change, Samir Amin brings together and summarises in this slim volume the perspectives, arguments and explanations which he had developed in his writings such as "Rereading the Post-War History", "Empire of Chaos", "The Future of Global Polarisation", and "Maldevelopment: Anatomy of a Global Failure", published mostly in the past one decade or so. It is therefore a significant publication, and should be compulsory reading for all those who are interested in the question of globalisation and its implications for a country like India.

This is so for several reasons. The most important among these is the fact that globalisation has divided Indian intellectuals down the middle.What is regrettable, however, is not the division itself, which was probably inevitable, but the way the division has occurred. The issue has not been debated threadbare; it has been prejudged from fixed ideological positions. What is still worse, the ideological positions themselves are no more than "received wisdom", its source easily traceable to one or the other stream of thinking in the West.

Samir Amin, an Egyptian by birth, too has worked, at least partly, in western academic and research institutions, but in his concerns and commitments, he remains firmly a thinker of the global South. Not for him, therefore, the abstract and fanciful theories which adorn passing academic fashions in the West. Amin firmly believes that "social thought is inseparable from the practical work it inspires". He proposes, therefore, a politically significant distinction between those he calls "operatives", serving the established ideological apparatus, and the "intelligentsia proper".

In which category will fall some of the best known Indian names, particularly those who subscribe with the zeal of new converts to the thesis popularly known as "the end of ideology"? Amin finds it amusing that the end of ideology is being proclaimed at the very moment when the dominant global North is attempting to impose the "utopia of the market" which is nothing but "a pure ideology, expressed in the most primitive form".

Not that such tricks are new. They would have been pulled off just as World War II ended with the help of the newly created Bretten Woods institutions — the IMF, the IBRD and GATT. But these were fought of with considerable success, thanks to the spirit of what Amin calls the "Bandung Project" which at that time was most alive and vigilant.

In contrast, we have seen in the more recent years "the demise of the Bandung Project". Development -determined economic nationalism has been diluted in the countries of the global South and the Third World solidarity has been abandoned. In effect, we are witnessing "re-compradorisation of peripheries" through structural adjustment programmes, sponsored by the IMF in the name of "reforms".

Indian enthusiasts of these "reforms" refuse to see a simple point that Amin puts his finger on only too sharply: the IMF has never been able to force structural adjustments on the powerful industrial nations. Going back by the IMF logic, the USA should need these adjustments the most. Its budget deficit, $ 931 billion for the decades 1980-99, is not only large enough to absorb all the surpluses of the other developed regions, but has also actually drained the international market of capital which would have otherwise been available for other regions of the world.

Amin is not against globalisation per se. What he is against is the kind of "globalisation" that is taking place. One should never forget that this "globalisation" is occurring in a world system which is characterised by "five monopolies" in the hands of the industrial countries of the global North: over technology, financial markets, natural resources, media, and weapons of mass destruction.

"Globalisation" shaped by an unequal and unjust world system could not have led to equality and justice, and has not. It has brought about instead what Amin calls the "triple failure of the system". First, it has failed to develop new forms of political and social organisations beyond the nation state whereas that should logically be a requirement of the globalist system of production.

Second, it has failed to accommodate smoothly the industrial zones which have emerged in parts of Asia and Latin America and now wish to compete with North America and Western Europe.

Finally, it has not developed a relationship, other than one of excluding, with Africa and peripheral regions of Asia and Latin America.

Obviously, the net result could not have been a new world order; what these failures have produced is a "global disorder", now sought to be managed through US military hegemony and an expanded NATO role.

Goals of equality, freedom and justice require, Amin argues, an "alternative humanist project of globalisation". That project must involve global disarmament, particularly so in the case of nuclear weapons, and it must also involve arranging equitable access to the planet’s resources.

Negotiations must start for an open and flexible economic relationship among major regions of the world. Democratic management of communication media is another must. Amin proposes ultimately the creation of a "polycentric world". Only within such a framework, he believes, can a "negotiated interdependence" be organised.

The creation of polycentric world requires, in turn, two kinds of commitments on the part of the countries of the global South. One, they must relaunch their national development projects and in order to do that, they must reconcile internal inequalities, be these between classes or social groups. Second, they must show willingness to broaden their concerns, and move up from the level of being nation-state to that of being partners in their respective regions. Small and medium-sized countries need to develop these regional formations in particular.

To be honest, none of the criticisms and proposals mentioned above is likely to appear as particularly new or innovative to many of us. Many of these points were also made by the group involved in the World Order Models Project (WOMP) conceived and executed under the leadership of Richard Falk in the 1970s. That was the period in which globalisation had not yet become a buzz world. One might recall here the book "Footsteps into the Future" (1974) by Rajni Kothari, one of the WOMP authors, proposing the same kind of polycentric world based on regions.

So what is new or different about Amin? In a sense, not much. But even if he is merely reiterating a point, the reiteration is of utmost importance. The fact of the matter is that some of those who made these points in the 1970s have moved away from them as a disillusioned and bitter lot. They have lost all faith in the agency of the state, and have ended up taking anti-state positions uncritically. This, Amin argues, suits the globalisations of the global North perfectly well. What these well-meaning theorists must always remember, says Amin, is the telling comment of Kostas Vergopulos: if national coherence is regressing, it is not being replaced by global coherence.

Amin’s ultimate aim is to provide a systematic critique of the dominant discourse which makes globalisation appear inevitable. He believes that human history is not determined by material realities alone; it is the product of social responses to these realities. The duty of the intelligentsia, especially those of the Third World, is to lay bare the justificatory rhetoric for the present forms of globalisation.

This effort cannot be limited to conventional Marxist critiques of capitalism and capitalist modernity: "Marxism too assimilated the economistic biases of bourgeois theory, yielded to the lure of its deterministic vision, and thus turned the ‘laws of history’ into a set of implacable rules identical to the inexorable laws of natural sciences... and in the process trashed the dialectic of human freedom."

In this context, probably the most insightful section of the book concerns the neo-Marxist understanding of globalisation. He argues that theories developed within the frameworks of "dependency" and "world system" by theorists like Andre Gunder-Frank and Wallerstein can sometimes be extremely mechanistic, economistic and deterministic, and by being so, they make the ongoing process of capitalist globalisation appear as inevitable as do the rightwing globalisation arguments.