AGRICULTURE TRIBUNE Monday, March 6, 2000, Chandigarh, India
 

Make your grape orchard productive
By V.P. Singh
USE of balance nutrition and plant hormones are the major part to become productive grape orchard by improving the quality of grapes. Generally, it has been observed that farmers do not provide proper nutrition and plant hormones in their grape orchards. Such orchards produce poor quality of grapes giving low income to the orchardists and are called unproductive orchard. Nutrition should be supplied at active root zone of grape trees, which are located at 30 to 60 cm depth and 65 to 75 cm radical distance and its suitable time is February.

New varieties of rice, sugarcane
PUNJAB Agricultural University, Ludhiana, has introduced the following new varieties of rice, sugarcane, maize and bajra.

Tomato brings them prosperity
By Jagmeet Singh
Tomato has transformed the fortune of marginal and small farmers of the Kumarhatti area of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh over the past few years. The record-breaking production of tomato has changed the lifestyle of farmers. Once poverty stricken, they now have pucca houses, highly qualified children, better standard of living and all necessary and luxurious goods in their homes. Tomato, on an average, helps them earn between Rs 10,000 and Rs 15,000 per bigha in a season. During the past few years, the traditional crop pattern has undergone a sea change. Tomato, peas, cauliflower and capsicum (Shimla mirch), all off-season vegetables grown in the area, fetch better return throughout the year.

Guidelines for orchardists in early March
By Atul Kumbhkarni
THE Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry has recommended the following farm practices to be followed in the first fortnight of March.

India largest producer of cashewnut
By V.P. Prabhakar
India has the distinction of being the world's largest producer of cashew nut. With a production of 4.30 lakh tonnes from an area of 5.67 lakh hectares cashew nut is the major export crop. During the eighth plan, various programmes for increasing the production and productivity of cashew nut were implemented with an outlay of Rs 47.85 crore. The scheme is being continued even now.

Micronutrient deficiency in wheat
By Naresh Kumar Gulati
The nutrients, which are normally found in plants relatively in traces, are called micronutrients. Wheat is the premier cereal crop of Punjab, grown in about 33 lakh hectares. Successful cultivation of this crop depends largely on the fertility status of the soil. For maintaining the soil fertility, presently we are relying mainly on chemical fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potash.
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Make your grape orchard productive
By V.P. Singh

USE of balance nutrition and plant hormones are the major part to become productive grape orchard by improving the quality of grapes. Generally, it has been observed that farmers do not provide proper nutrition and plant hormones in their grape orchards. Such orchards produce poor quality of grapes giving low income to the orchardists and are called unproductive orchard. Nutrition should be supplied at active root zone of grape trees, which are located at 30 to 60 cm depth and 65 to 75 cm radical distance and its suitable time is February.

Grape fruit plants require 16 elements to complete their life cycle. These are mentioned as N, P. K. Fe, Cu, Mn, B, Mo, An, S, Mg, Ca, C, H, O and Cl. These elements are required to the grape plants in their chain system. Deficiency of any of these elements has a radious effect on the growth and productivity of grapes. Each element shows the deficiency in different symptoms on the plant as nitrogen causes general yellowing of older leaves. Phosphorus deficiency appears in the form of purplish colour. There is intervenal chlorosis due to deficiency or zinc and leaves remain small in size. The new growth remains chlorotic due to deficiency of iron. The tips of twigs curl due to Cu deficiency. Generally, farmers supply the said nutrition on the basis of equality, while deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash is found at a few places in Kurukshetra district. Doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash are required per acre gradually at 20, 6 and 20 kg, respectively.

Nitrogen:

The depth of roots of grape plants is found 55 cm in the soil, due to this, green manures are the utmost need which should be supplied through the leguminious crops. A higher dose of nitrogen is not beneficial at the bearing time rather than before fruiting. Two per cent spray of urea is sufficient for supplying nitrogen which is needful at three times in a year — two before fruiting and one after fruiting.

Phosphorus: The quantity of phosphorus should be considered according to the requirement of the plant which will be considered on the base of leaves symptoms. Two kg of superphosphate should be used at the time of transplanting in the each pit. Less amount of phosphorus is beneficial to supply at the time of bearing stage as compared to non-bearing stage. It should be mixed in the soil up to the depth of 6 cm from the upper surface of the soil.

Potash: It is essential for good growth of the plant and bearing also. Potash should be supplied according to requirement of plant growth. Potassium sulphate and muriate of potash are the best fertilisers to recover the deficiency of potash and its proper time for supplying is February and April. It had been found by scientist that a potassium sulphate spray is also beneficial to improve the taste, colour and quality of fruits.

The amount of fertiliser and manure in kg/plant:

Age of plant (in years) FYM CAN SSP K2SO4
2 30 0.60 1.00 0.40
3 45 0.75 1.50 0.50
4 60 1.00 2.00 0.65
5 & above 75 1.25 2.00 0.80

A complete dose of FYM, superphosphate and half dose of nitrogen and potash should be supplied just after pruning of grape plants and the remaining dose of nitrogen and potash will be supplied after fruiting in the month of April and May.

Micro-nutrients: Zinc has the main role for the cultivation of grape as compared to micro-nutrients and its deficiency symptoms appear on grape vines. A spray of 0.3 per cent of zinc should be used at three times in a year at the suitable time before fruiting and the last week of March. It is beneficial to improve the quality of fruits and taste.

A spray of 0.2 per cent of Boric acid is also beneficial to improve the quality of grape fruits and taste also and its spraying practices should be taken like zinc.

A spray of 0.2 per cent of Blitox may improve the deficiency of copper.

Quality improvement by plant hormones: Application of 20 ppm GA (20 mg/litre water) at the full bloom stage and 40 ppm at fruit set stage is helpful to improve the quality of grapes in the seedless grape cultivars.

In the coloured grape cultivars, application of Ethephom 500 ppm (50 ml/100 litre water) is also helpful to provide uniform colour development and early ripening by about 10 days.
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New varieties of rice, sugarcane

PUNJAB Agricultural University, Ludhiana, has introduced the following new varieties of rice, sugarcane, maize and bajra.

Rice:

PR-115 (SVAC) — It is a short statured stiff-strawed variety with dark green erect leaves. Its average plant height is 100 cm. It has long erect flag leaf which provides protection against birds damage. Its, grains are long slender, with good cooking quality. It matures in about 125 days after seeding. Its average yield is 2500 kg of paddy per acre.

PR 116 (SVAC) — It is a semi dwarf stiff-strawed lodging tolerant variety. It has light green erect leaves. It grows on an average 108 cm tall. It matures in 144 days after seeding. It possesses long slender grains with very good cooking quality. It is resistant to most races of bacterial blight pathogen prevalent in Punjab. Its average yield is 2800 kg of paddy per acre.

Sugarcane:

Co J-85 (SVAC) — It is a medium tall, shy tillering variety with thick canes green in colour. It is a good germinator but requires about 10 per cent higher seed rate by weight, as compared to that of other varieties, for planting. Due to its heavy cane and slightly open plant type, it is more prone to lodging. Hence, proper earthing up and binding of canes at an appropriate time is required to obtain higher yields. It is an average ratooner. The average cane yield of plant crop, obtained in adaptive trials was 343 quintals per acre, the highest being 432 quintals per acre in these trials. It is tolerant to low temperature stress and most of the prevalent isolated to red rot diseases too, to which Co J-64 is highly susceptible. Its juice contains 16 to 17 per cent sucrose in the month of November and 18 to 18.5 per cent in December.

Co S-8436 (SVAC) — It is a short-statured variety with sturdy, thick canes and is tolerant to lodging. It has greenish yellow cane. It is a good germinator and gives an average stalk population. The average and the highest cane yield of the plant crop in the adaptive trials was 333 and 500 quintals per acre, respectively. It possesses broad spectrum and high level of tolerance to red rot diseases. Its juice has 17 to 18 per cent sucrose in January. It performs better under high fertility soils with frequent irrigation.

Maize:

Bio-9637 — It is a medium maturing hybrid developed by a private company, Bioseed. It has tall (200 cm) plant. The leaves are broad and medium long. Tassel is open and of medium size. Ears are medium long and thick. Grains are yellow and semi dent to flint. The cob is white. It matures in about 86 days. It yielded 1800 and 1860 kg/acre under irrigated conditions. It is susceptible to post flowering stalk rots.

Napier Bajra:

Hybrid PBN-233 (SVAC) — It is a non-hairy variety with smooth long and broad leaves. It maintains its active vegetative growth longer than PBN-83 because it sprouts earlier in spring and maintains vegetative growth upto the onset of winter. Its winter dormancy period is about 15 days less than PBN-83. It yields 14 per cent higher green fodder than PBN-83.
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Tomato brings them prosperity
By Jagmeet Singh

Tomato has transformed the fortune of marginal and small farmers of the Kumarhatti area of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh over the past few years. The record-breaking production of tomato has changed the lifestyle of farmers. Once poverty stricken, they now have pucca houses, highly qualified children, better standard of living and all necessary and luxurious goods in their homes. Tomato, on an average, helps them earn between Rs 10,000 and Rs 15,000 per bigha in a season. During the past few years, the traditional crop pattern has undergone a sea change. Tomato, peas, cauliflower and capsicum (Shimla mirch), all off-season vegetables grown in the area, fetch better return throughout the year.

More than 4,000 hectares of area is under off-season vegetables of which tomato is grown in about 2,000 hectares and 15,000 to 18,000 metric tonne of tomato production is recorded annually as compared to 20,000 to 25,000 metric tonnes of other vegetables in Solan district.

In the beginning of 20th century the tomato crop was grown in the Happy valley (Sproon area) comprising three panchayats — Top Ki Bair, Deothi and Dangri — which gradually emerged as pioneer in the cultivation of tomato in the earlier sixties by commercialising the crop. To market the crop in Bombay and Delhi, the role of late Devi Chand Mehta cannot be forgotten as he was instrumental in taking initiative to sell tomato and other vegetables in the late fifties in bigger markets and motivated other farmers to get better remuneration for their produce.

At Salogra, once the market for farmers of Sirmaur and Shimla districts, the commission agents, who used to purchase tomato, got attracted towards the tomato grown in the Happy valley. As a result, Jagath Khana, near Deothi village, 8 km from Solan, developed into the main market in 1965-66. More and more farmers opted for this crop.

The construction of link roads in the early eighties to the Jaunaji, Dharoj, Oachaghat areas encouraged the farming community to adopt cultivation of off-season vegetables, including tomato.

The tomato crop is fast expanding to even remote and backward areas of all the five blocks of Solan district. Besides the Happy valley, Jaunaji, Oachaghat, Haripur, Jabal Jamrot, Patta Brawari, Kora-Kainthli in Solan block, Sayari, Kanair and Sadhupal in Kandaghat block, Bawasani, Sanri, Bahal, Matuli, Chandar, Diggal, Janwal, Manlog Kalan and Basuala in Nalagarh block, Dommchar, Maan, Navgaon and Bakhalog area in Kunihar block and Chandi, Goyala, Patta, Kanda and Chapala area in Dharampur block have made an outstanding contribution in the cultivation of this cash crop.

In 1960-70 the ''Solan Gola'' and ''Solan Surakh'' varieties were popular among farmers, but now hybrid varieties of the ''Rupali'', ''Vaishali'', ''Naveen'', ''Safal-99'', ''Safal-20'' and ''Dudo American'' were popularised by farm scientists. The average yield of these varieties has been recorded at 350 to 400 quintals per hectare.

Gone are the days when vegetables were sold in temporary markets at Ambala and Dagshai and farmers used to carry sacks full of vegetables on foot to Dagshai, Kumarhatti and Kasauli to sell them. Now tomato markets have been set up at Solan, Dharampur, Chaki Ki Maur (Parwanoo), Nalagarh, Kunihar and Ramshahr where farmers sell their produce in an open auction. An agricultural produce terminal market (a cold storage) has been built at Parwanoo at a cost of Rs 3 crore.

Tomato cultivation in this area has not only transformed the life of farmers but it also speaks volumes of the sincere and sustained efforts being put up by the government agencies towards bringing a silent revolution in Solan district.
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Guidelines for orchardists in early March
By Atul Kumbhkarni

THE Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry has recommended the following farm practices to be followed in the first fortnight of March.

Temperate fruits: Completion of sowing of stratified seeds of apple, kainth and stone fruits; application of 1.4 kg of CAN in apple and pear for trees 10 years and above, completion of training and pruning in apple and pear.

Honeybee hives: Two boxes per acre of land may be placed in apple orchards to serve as pollinators.

Stone fruits: Late ripening cultivars of peach and almond be sprayed with metasystox 25 EC or Rogor 30 EC 100 ml per 100 lt. water.

For preventing apple scab, spray chlorothalonil 400 gm or Mancozeb 400 gm per 100 (litres) water, Dodine 100 gm or Dithianon 75 gm, Captan-50 500 gm or Captan-75 300 gm per 100 lt. of water at silver tip stage or Captan-75 300 gm per 100 lt of water at silver tip stage.

For Sanjose scale, spray, between half inch green stage of development and tight cluster stage, Bal spray lt or Hindustan Petroleum spray oil four lt. or Servo orchard spray oil four lt. or Savo spray oil OEH four lt. or Agro spray orchard four lt., ATSO tree spray oil or Loven-30 six lt. or IPOL orchard spray oil six lt. per 200 lt. of water on apple.

Sub-Tropical fruits: Irrigate mango, litchi and citrus species trees. Ber may be harvested. Apply Bordeaux mixture 0.8 per cent and streptocyclin 0.01 per cent for controlling canker. Use copper sulphate 500 gms, lime 30 gms lt. water and 500 ml of linseed oil, for white washing. Remove the dry and infested branches in mango, and apply Bordeaux paste, and spray Captain 0.2 per cent.

For preventing mildew in grape, spray Bordeaux mixture, soon after pruning, three four weeks after cutting, at bud stage, and at time of development of inflorescence.

For controlling mango hopper, spray monoctrotophos 0.04 per cent or phosphimadon 0.03 per cent or endosuophan 0.05 per cent.

For powdery mildew in mango, spray soluble sulphur 0.5 per cent or karathane 0.05 per cent or Carbendazim 0.05 per cent twice. i.e. first spray before the on set of flowers and second after fruit set. For controlling insect pests like border, psylla and butterfly in mango, spray monocrotophos 0.04 per centor diamethoate or fenitrothion 0.05 per cent.

For the control of mite in litchi, spray dicofol 0.5 per cent or lime sulphur at the leaf bud burst stage, and 2-3 times after fruit set at an interval of 10 to 15 days.

Vegetables: The university has recommended transplanting seedlings of tomato, capsicum, cucumber and chillies in low hills, and transplanting of tomato seedlings, preferably in the evening, in mid-hills, and sowing of vegetable nurseries for capsicum, chillies and french bean.

In high hills, apply a second doze of CAN at 4 kg per bigha in peas soon after snow melts.

For controlling red ant or aphid in cauliflower, apply 1.25 kg phorate or thimet 10-G around plants, or methyl dementon 100 ml metasystox 25 EC per 100 per 100 lt. water. For stem and fruit rot, spray mancozeb 0.25 per cent, streptocyclin 0.01 per cent and carbendazim 0.05 per cent in cauliflower. For controlling powdery mildew in cauliflower, spray sulphex 0.2 per cent or karathane 0.05 per cent. For stem borer, spray malathion or fenitrothion. For aphid in Chinese sarson, spray malathion or endosulfan 100 ml per 100 lt. water.

Floriculture: Transplant carnation at 65 cm distance on raised beds. Plant chrysanthemum at 60x30 cm. distance, early varieties of gladioli at 30x20 cm distance, plant dahlia on prepared beds. Remove weak and diseased infested shoots in roses.

Forestry: Sow seeds of khirak, khair, pine, kachnar, robina, shishoo, buel, harar, eucalyptus, and tuna.

Bee-keeping: Remove packing, and prepare five per cent sugar solution and put 40 to 80 tablets of Thrist for feeding honey bees.
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India largest producer of cashew nut
By V.P. Prabhakar

India has the distinction of being the world's largest producer of cashew nut.

With a production of 4.30 lakh tonnes from an area of 5.67 lakh hectares cashew nut is the major export crop. During the eighth plan, various programmes for increasing the production and productivity of cashew nut were implemented with an outlay of Rs 47.85 crore. The scheme is being continued even now.

An outlay of Rs 16 crore was provided for centrally-sponsored integrated development programme for 1997-98. The programme included expansion, improving productivity through rejuvenation, replanting, intensive pest control, establishing regional nurseries, organising farmers training programme and establishing model clonal gardens. The outlay for 1998-99 was Rs 20 crore.

The programme was implemented in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura and the Union Territories of Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The development of new plantations with clones conforming to export qualities and maintenance of cashew plantations raised in previous years was implemented in these states in 1997-98 for which an assistance to the extent of Rs 7.22 crore was provided for inputs like plantations material, fertilisers and plant protection chemicals. Under fresh planting, an area of 25,701 hectares was covered under this programme along with maintenance of 32,135 hectares raised in the previous years. During 1998-99, an area of about 37,000 hectares was covered.

The objective of replanting/rejuvenation by top working of old and uneconomical cashew gardens is to replant/rejuvenate the old, senile and unproductive cashew gardens with the genuine clones. An input support has been provided under this programme as in the case of new planting, in addition to compensation for removing the old trees. During 1997-98, an area of 21,373 hectares was replanted along with the maintenance of 2,355 hectares in 1995-96 and 1996-97 at a cost of Rs 11.17 crore.

The programme of adoption of comprehensive production technology in growers' orchards has its objective to consolidate and improve the productivity status of cashew by way of adoption of recommended package of practices in a comprehensive manner by providing assistance for inputs like fertilisers, farmyard manure and plant protection chemicals for a period of three consecutive years. An area of 12,976 hectares adopted for the package treatment in previous years in various states was maintained.

This is to carry out prophylactic plant protection measures against pests attacking foliage, root, stem, tender flushes and blossoms.

In 1997-98, 15 regional nurseries were established, in addition to the maintenance of 13 nurseries set up in 1996-97.

The main objective of development of model clonal cashew gardens is to demonstrate the cultivation of cashew by adopting scientific agro-technologies and horticultural management practices for cultivators' fields. During 1997-98, 217 plots were established afresh along with maintenance of 304 plots laid down out in the previous years. Funds for inputs such as for planting materials, fertilisers, farmyard manure, plant protection chemicals and soiled and moisture conservation measures have been provided for this programme.

The training programme is intended to expose farmers to various technologies available and to train and motivate them to adopt the modern cultivation techniques in their fields. Financial support towards training allowances, instructional kit, etc was provided to 3,230 farmers in eight states at a cost of Rs 7.57 crore.
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Micronutrient deficiency in wheat
By Naresh Kumar Gulati

The nutrients, which are normally found in plants relatively in traces, are called micronutrients. Wheat is the premier cereal crop of Punjab, grown in about 33 lakh hectares. Successful cultivation of this crop depends largely on the fertility status of the soil. For maintaining the soil fertility, presently we are relying mainly on chemical fertilisers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. The various other nutrient deposits in the soil are declining day by day. Because of our intensive cropping system and the non-application of various organic manures, the deficiency of these micronutrients is appearing in our crops. If timely remedial measures are not taken, this deficiency of micronutrients could become a major worry. The deficiency of these nutrients could be avoided by getting the soil tested. In Punjab there are about nine laboratories established by the Department of Agriculture. Besides, one laboratory is at PAU, Ludhiana. The following are the major symptoms of deficiency of these micronutrients in wheat and their remedial measures.

Sulphur: The deficiency symptoms of this nutrient first appear on younger leaves with fading of the normal green colour and the growth is stunted. The tip of the leaf remains green and under severe deficiency the whole leaf turns yellow. The nitrogen deficiency also causes yellowing of leaves, but the difference is that the nitrogen deficiency symptoms first appears on older leaves. The deficiency of this micronutrient appears mostly in sandy soil conditions and prolonged rain spells in winter during the early growth stage.

The remedial measures of this nutrient include the application of sulphur containing fertilisers like single superphosphate (12 per cent) and sulphur, ammonium sulphate containing 24 per cent sulphur. These fertilisers are generally applied as major nutrient suppliers. The application of gypsum at the rate of 100 kg per acre before sowing is also recommended. Gypsum contains 13 per cent of sulphur. Fifty kg of gypsum can also be applied in the standing crop for meeting the sulphur deficiency.

Manganese: The manganese deficiency appears on the middle leaf of the plant. The deficiency leads to a chlorosis in the interveinal tissue of leaves and the veins remain green. The symptoms remain confined to lower two-thirds part of the leave. The specks of light grey to greyish brown colour appear under mild deficiency.

To make available this nutrient, the crop should be sprayed with 0.5 per cent manganese sulphate solution i.e. 1 kg of manganese sulphate in 200 litres of water per acre. The first spray should be made two to four days before the first irrigation and afterwards two-three sprays at weekly intervals could certainly be helpful for making available this nutrient to the crop.

Zinc: If the soils are calcareous and very high in phosphorous content, zinc deficiency is commonly expected to occur. The deficiency symptoms first appear on younger leaves starting with interveinal chlorosis leading to reduction in shoot growth, shortening of internodes, bushy growth and delaying of earing and maturity. The third and fourth leaves from the top develop a band of white or yellow tissue in the middle. This necrotic area further increases and coalesce, resulting in the collapse of leaf from the middle.

For correcting the deficiency of this nutrient, application of 25 kg of zinc sulphate per acre at sowing time is recommended. This dose of zinc sulphate would be sufficient for two to three years. The salts or complexes of zinc could easily be absorbed directly through leaves, also. Hence a spray in the standing crop could also be undertaken for correcting zinc deficiency. For this purpose 1 kg of zinc sulphate and 500 gm of unslaked lime in 200 litres of water should be sprayed. For getting good response to zinc sulphate two to three sprays at fortnight intervals are recommended.
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