EDUCATION TRIBUNE Tuesday, May 16, 2000, Chandigarh, India
Rural schools rendered dysfunctional: study
By V.P. Prabhakar
HE growth and expansion of education in Punjab is quite tardy. The educational system in the state is highly iniquitous. The state is far behind the target of universalisation of elementary education. Education at all levels is besieged with multiple problems.

In defence of PMET ban
From Varinder Walia
AMRITSAR: The decision of the Punjab Government to bar those students for appearing in the PMET who have not passed their 10+1 and 10+2 exams from a recognised institution in Punjab is a welcome step. This is the outcome of a yearly struggle of parents of medical students in Punjab.

Career hotline





Rural schools rendered dysfunctional: study
By V.P. Prabhakar

THE growth and expansion of education in Punjab is quite tardy. The educational system in the state is highly iniquitous. The state is far behind the target of universalisation of elementary education. Education at all levels is besieged with multiple problems.

The state has not succeeded in overcoming the problem of non-enrolment, irregular attendance and high drop out rate, particularly in rural areas. Single-teacher schools, two-teacher schools, schools without headmasters, buildings, drinking water, toilets, libraries, laboratories, playgrounds and proper electricity connections are in a good majority.

In rural areas, science and commerce education at the intermediate level has collapsed. The learning achievement in general has remained extremely low.

These startling revelations have been made by a study conducted by the Centre for Research in Economic change, Punjabi University, Patiala.

The study says the educational system is not well-integrated and lacks coherence. Multiple schooling with different affiliations has played a havoc with the system. Influential sections of society have withdrawn their wards from government schools, both in rural and urban areas. The gap between different school systems has increased to such an extent that government schools have come to be recognised as the schools of the “have not”. The education system has become an instrument of social stratification rather than that of cohesiveness. The upgrading of government schools due to political considerations without providing matching facilities has disturbed the educational equilibrium. The sanctity of teacher-pupil ratio is not upheld. The urban schools are overstaffed as against the acute shortage of teachers in rural areas.

Quality institutions in private sector are concentrated in urban areas. However, in semi-urban areas, small towns and rural areas, “substandard” private institutions have mushroomed. These institutions working like commercial establishments and are often described as educational shops. A few cities have seen agitations by parents against hefty fee hikes and imposition of other charges by such institutions.

The practice, according to the study, of transfer of persons along with the post from rural area has rendered rural schools dysfunctional. The separation of primary directorate from high school directorate has proved to be counter-productive. The inspection and monitoring system is absolutely non-functional.

As the expenditure on the civic administration and the police has increased manifold, the education sector has been made to bear the brunt of diversion of public spending towards non-productive uses. So far the state has transferred the least proportion of the state budget and state income on education. The overriding goal of vocationalisation of education, it is felt cannot be fulfilled in the true sense amidst the resource crunch.

The study says public spending on education needs to be stepped up in a time-bound manner. It must be brought at least to the suggested norm of 6 per cent of the state income. It implies that educational spending in the state be at least doubled.

In 1993-94 the total educational Budget of Kerala was Rs 1155 crore as against Rs 711 crore of Punjab. It says the education sector must be treated as a priority sector and not as residual sector. The education sector should not be made to bear the cost of increasing expenditure of other government departments or that of decline of state revenue.

In 1992-93, Punjab’s actual spending (Plan and non-Plan) on ‘education, sports, art and culture’ was Rs 602 crore as against Rs 635 crore on the police.

The study further says that educational activities in the private sector be regulated keeping in view social priorities. Besides, there is a need to make certain organisational changes to strengthen the democratic process. The input of democracy could go a long way in enhancing economic growth. For this, local bodies must be involved in a big way in managing education. The process of democratisation should be strengthened to ensure transparency, accountability and public participation.


In defence of PMET ban
From Varinder Walia

AMRITSAR: The decision of the Punjab Government to bar those students for appearing in the PMET who have not passed their 10+1 and 10+2 exams from a recognised institution in Punjab is a welcome step. This is the outcome of a yearly struggle of parents of medical students in Punjab.

There has been a hue and cry over the decision by some quarters in Chandigarh on the plea that Chandigarh being the capital of Punjab, Chandigarh students ought to be automatically eligible for the PMET. The contention seems logical, but facts are otherwise. First, if Chandigarh is the capital of Punjab and Chandigarh students automatically eligible for the PMET, then the vice versa should also be true — medical students of Punjab should be eligible for appearing in UT medical colleges, but that is not permitted.

Second, Chandigarh is also the capital of Haryana which does not allow Chandigarh medical students to appear in its medical colleges. Third, the domicile/residence conditions in the notification issued by the Punjab Government are so loose that every Tom, Dick and Harry can manage to procure a domicile certificate and appear in the PMET.

In this way, students of other states, including Chandigarh, manage to grab 60 MBBS seats in Punjab every year. In the 1998 PMET exam, 33 students from Haryana alone appeared in the PMET as well as the Haryana PMT exam. They were selected in both states and are now doing their MBBS in Punjab. Hence Punjab students were deprived of 33 seats.

As Chandigarh has its own medical college, there is no logic in allowing Chandigarh medical students to appear in Punjab and Haryana medical colleges.


Career hotline

Does one need to take coaching in order to become a cartoonist? Could you please tell me the prospects in this field?

Deepak Soni, Ludhiana

Cartoonists are usually hired by newspaper and publishing houses and various magazines. However, most of the newspapers already have a lead cartoonist with many years of experience (e.g. TOI’s R. K. Lakshman who has become a house-hold name). It may be somewhat easier to start off doing illustrations and cartoons for the inside pages and gradually work your way up. Animation is another related offshoot. CDROM publishing and designing web pages on the internet also require cartoonists to liven up the text.

Cartooning is an in-born skill, which can be polished with training and a keen power of observation. Coaching is not required if you have an inborn talent for sketching or caricaturing.

However, if you are keen on formal training, a diploma or a degree in Fine/Commercial Art will equip you with the necessary skills.

After dabbling in various styles, you will in time evolve your own `trademark’ style. A brief course in computer animation and graphics would be invaluable.

You could also do a diploma in Fine Arts from any of the local art colleges and polytechnic institutes.

Some knowledge of multimedia or Animation would also help if you want to work in the electronic media i.e. television, internet and CD ROMs.

Amongst several others, the following institutions are good places to learn Animation. But these are fairly expensive courses. Do check them out before enrolling. As yet, the scope for Animation Artists in India is at a low-key.

I am keen on doing my postgraduate studies from Britain. Does one need to take a test to prove one’s proficiency in the English language.

Shweta Kumar, Chandigarh

If you are planning to study at a college or university in the UK, the most suitable test is the IELTS (International English Language Testing System). You could even take the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). The average entry score for most university-level courses is around IELTS 6.0 or TOEFL 550. But some courses require higher English language qualifications than the others. Among those considered to be ‘exacting’ are courses in areas such as management, linguistics and journalism. Such courses will require IELTS scores in the range of 6.5-7.0 or TOEFL scores in the range of 575-600.

I want to be a stock broker. Please tell me about the qualifications required for this job.

Deepak Khattar, Panchkula.

Today, the National Stock Exchange provides a nation-wide network of trading facilities. Automated trading facilities and transparency in market operations call for professionals who can meet the demands and expectations of investors. Accordingly, this field draws many specialists for its operations - stock brokers, economists, accountants, finance managers, financial analysts, capital market specialists as well as investment and financial planners.

To be a stock broker, you have to be a graduate with a minimum of 2-years work experience in a stock broking firm. Registration for brokership is granted on the basis of experience as a sub-broker and on the recommendation of a registered broker. You cannot trade in stocks unless you are a member of a stock exchange. This is usually an expensive affair since the membership is already closed and the only option is to buy a card from an existing member (which can cost you anywhere up to 21/2 crores and above). However, the Interconnected Stock Exchange promoted by 15 regional bourses has announced a new scheme by which small time brokers and traders can trade on the National Stock Exchange directly for a membership fee of only Rs. 12 lakh. A similar facility for trading on the Bombay Stock Exchange is also in the offing.

A postgraduate course in Finance & Control/Commerce/Economics is useful for entry into this business. Other useful courses being:

MBA Finance from a good B-school or CA degree.

PG Membership Course in Capital Market & Financial Services from The Institute of Company Secretaries of India, ICSI House, 22, Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003.

PG Diploma in Capital Market Studies (under the aegis of Bombay Stock Exchange Training Institute) from All India Centre for Capital Market Studies, J D B Institute of Management Studies & Research, Nasik 422005. Eligibility: Graduation.

PG Course in Fundamentals of Capital Market from the Institute of Capital Market Development, 1965, Arya Samaj Road, Karol Bagh, Delhi 110005. Eligibility: Graduation.

Diploma in Financial & Investment Planning (correspondence) from the Institute of Financial & Investment Planning, B/303, Ventex Vikas, MV Road, Andheri (E), Mumbai 400 069.

Chartered Financial Analysts (CFA) course from the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI), Road No. 3, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500034.

The UTI Institute of Capital Markets, Plot 82, Sector-17, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705. also conducts professional development programmes in Financial Markets and Treasury Management.

Recently, Delhi University’s College of Business Studies has introduced a 3-year Bachelor’s in Financial & Investment Analysis degree. To create middle-management level professionals for the stock market. This six-semester programme is complemented with intensive project work and on-the-job training.

Also reading professional books on the subject would improve your understanding and enhance your skills. (If you would like a list, send me a self-addressed stamped envelope). It would also help to work with a stock-broker to gain valuable hands-on experience.

Are the BGL (Bachelor of General Laws) and LLB the same? If I complete BGL, will I be eligible to practise as a lawyer?

Vikram Sinha, Ambala

BGL and LLB courses differ in their scope and duration. While BGL is a 2-year course, LLB takes 3 years. Eligibility for both BGL and LLB is a Bachelor’s degree though you can also pursue LLB straight after Class XII by doing an integrated 5-year course offered by several universities. According to the Bar Council of India, you cannot practise in a court of law after BGL or BAL (Bachelor of Academic Laws), though you can join a solicitor’s firm or give legal advice. Besides, your degree will be an asset in various jobs which require knowledge of law such as in Company Secretaryship, personnel management, industrial relations, consultancy services, etc.

This is your column. Please feel free to e-mail your comments and suggestions along with full name and address, qualification etc. to: Pervin Malhotra, Director CARING (Career Information & Guidance), New Delhi.





June 6 School of Planning & Architecture (Deemed Univ), 4, Block B, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110002.

Bachelor’s Programmes:

1) Architecture (5 yrs)

2) Planning (4 yrs)

Master’s Programmes:

3) Architecture with specialisation in:

Architectural Conservation; Industl Des; Urban Des; Bldg Engg & Mgt; Landscape Arch

4) Planning

(Environ P; Regional P; Transport P; Urban P, Housing.

Doctoral Programmes:

(Archi, Planning, Urban Des, Industrl Des; Archi Conservation; Landscape Arch; Urban Planning; Regional Planning; Environ Planning; Housing; Transport Planning; Bldg Engg & Mgt)

Prosp & Appln F: Send Rs. 400/- by DD favouring School of Planning & Architecture” payable at SBI/UCO Bank at New Delhi to the above address. Also available from following UCO Bank Branches: IP Estate, Def Col; CP; Karol Bagh; Som Vihar; Punj Bagh.

Armed Forces

May 30 Indian Army

NCC Special Entry Scheme for Short Service Commission (NT) Elig: (i) Graduation (50% agg) (ii) NCC ‘C’ Certificate with minimum B-Grade.

Age: 19 - 25 yrs.

Info & Appln: Available with all NCC Group HQs or Employment News 8-14 Apr.

Art & Design

May 31 Indian Instt. of Crafts & Design, (G/o Raj), B-16A, Bhawani Singh Rd, Opp Nehru Sahakar Bhawan, C-Scheme, Jaipur 302001.

PG Diploma (Crafts Des Major) (3 yrs)

Elig: Bachelor’s degree/Dip (3 yrs FT) in any discipline or exceptional candidates with 3-5 yrs exp in craft with min 10+2.

Appln F: Send Rs. 250/- by DD favouring “Indian Instt. of Crafts & Design” payable at Jaipur to the Director at the above address.


June 6 Ch. Charan Singh Univ, Meerut.

Master of Information Technology (MIT) (2 yrs, FT)

Elig: Bachelor’s degree (10+2+3): BA; BSc; BAppl Sc (H) in Phy/Maths/Stats/Op. Res; Comp Sc; Electronics Instrumentation; IT; with Maths as one of the subj; BCA; BE/BTech Comp Sc/IT/ Electronics/Instrumentation/Electl; Electron & Commn. with 50% agg (45% for SC/ST/OBC).

Written Test: June 25.

Appln F: Send Rs. 350/- by DD favouring “The Finance Controller, C.C.S. Univ, Meerut” payable at Meerut, to the Registrar at the above address, superscribing the envelope “Application for MIT Test”.


May 30 Indira Gandhi National Open Univ (IGNOU), Post Bag No. 2, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110068.

1) MBA

2) PG Dip in Mgmt/ HRD/ Financial Mgmt/Operation Mgmt/Mktg Mgmt

3) Dip in Elig: Mgmt

For (1) & (2) : Bachelor’s degree + 3 yrs supervisory/managerial work ex or Bachelor’s in Engg/Tech/Med/Archi/Law or Proff Degree in Accountancy/ CWA/CS or Masters Degree.


For (3): Non-Grad with 6-yrs supervisory/managerial work exp.

Test: Open MAT-VII: Aug 6.

Appln F & Prosp: Send Rs. 350/- by DD favouring “IGNOU” payable at the city from where it is required or at above address mentioning your name, add & program on the reverse of the DD. Also Rs. 300/- in cash at counter from:

1) No. 2, Azad Bhavan Road, IP Estate, New Delhi 110002

2) Old Govt. College Campus, Railway Road, Opp Liberty, Karnal 132001

3) SPMR College of Commerce, Canal Rd, Jammu 180001

4) Mantoo House, Raj Bagh, Nr Masjid Al-Farooq, Srinagar 190008

5) NSSS Kalyana Kendra, 293, 39th Cross, Jayanagar 8th Blk, B’lore 82

June 6 Indira Gandhi National Open Univ (IGNOU), Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110068.

B.Ed (Bachelor of Education)

Elig: Bachelor’s/PG degree, in-service teachers with 2-yr FT teaching exp in primary/secondary/hr/sr. secondary school recognised by the Central or State Govt. or a UT.

Entrance Test: Aug 6

Appln F & Prosp: Send Rs. 350/- by DD favouring “IGNOU” payable at the city from where it is required or at above address mentioning your name, add & program on the reverse of the DD. Also available in cash, Rs. 300/- at counters of regional centres before May 31.

Information Sc

May 25 Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) ETTG, 14, Satsang Vihar Marg, New Delhi-110067. May 98


Associateship in Info Sc (2-yrs)

Elig: PG in any subject (55% agg)/BE or MBBS/II Div Bachelor’s degree plus BLib Sc with 1-yr relevant experience.

Entrance Test: Jun 14 and interview in the month of July, to be conducted at 4 centres including Delhi & B’lore.

Prosp & Appln F: Send Rs. 100/- by DD favouring “Director, INSDOC” payable at New Delhi along with self-addressed, stamped (Rs. 12/-) envelope (25 x 20 cm) to Assoc. Head, ETTG at the above address.


May 26 Central Instt. of English & Foreign Languages, Hyderabad 500007.

1. MA English (2 yr)

(Specialisation in Teaching of English as a Second Lang (TESL)/Media & Commun/Linq/Appld Ling/English Litt/ Litt & Cultural Studies)

2. MA (2 yr) in TES/ Media & Commun/ Ling/ Appld Ling/ Eng Litt/ Litt & Cultural Studies

3. MA (2 yr) (non-modular prog)

4. MA (Hons) (1 yr): TESL/ Ling/ Phonetics

5. MA (FT)/Distance Mode): Arab/Germ/Russ/Span

6. MA (Dist Mode): Arab/ Germ/ Russ/Span

7. PG Cert: Tchg of Germ/ Russ/ Span

8. PG Dip: Tchg of Arab/Germ/ Russ/Span

9. M.Phil in English: TESL/Ling & Phonetics/Eng Litt

10. MPhil: Arab/Russ/Span

CARING (Career Information & Guidance), New Delhi.