EDUCATION TRIBUNE Tuesday, August 8, 2000, Chandigarh, India

There is no attitudinal change in neo-literates
By P.P.S.Gill
DUCATION is powerful force which can change, shape and mould societies. If that be so, literacy enables individual humans to become self-reliant and responsible members of society of which they are an integral part.

Career hotline


UGC warning



There is no attitudinal change in neo-literates
By P.P.S.Gill

EDUCATION is powerful force which can change, shape and mould societies. If that be so, literacy enables individual humans to become self-reliant and responsible members of society of which they are an integral part.

It is, perhaps, this objective which motivated policy-makers introduce, countrywide the concept of "Total literacy campaign" or "Adult literacy".

It is a belated realisation that "literate" if not "educated" adults can act as prime motivators to "primary" education. Hence, the government decision to introduce universal, compulsory and free primary education. The two concepts, "adult literacy" and "primary education", thus, play complimentary and supplementary roles.

It is in this backdrop one has to see the National Literacy Mission, set-up in 1988 based on the concept that literacy is an indispensible component of human resource development. The target group are men and women in the age of 15-35. Focus is on "functional" literacy to enable neo-literates ó housewives, milk and vegetable vendors, petty traders ó understand and communicate better when it comes to say counting change, reading a bus number, filling up of a form etc.

Yet, despite best intentions and efforts, reports of dropouts, among volunteers (teachers) and learners, pour in resulting in failure of the Mission. One reason for this is "neglect" of views of the intended beneficiaries ó learners ó in urban and rural areas. The programme is "voluntary" and so are "teachers" and the "taught". The moving spirit behind this being motivation.

There are two key factors: one, quality of adult education functionaries or the facilities provided to adults to increase their professional efficiency and two, favourable attitudes of adult learners towards the programme.

Involving both volunteer teachers and volunteer learners, the Regional Resource Centre for Adult and Continuing Education, Panjab University, has made two studies: one, comparing the attitude of rural and urban adult learners towards the literacy campaign and two, on the efficacy of training programme of volunteers in the total literacy campaign.

These studies, in the Mohali sub-division of Ropar, and four sub-divisions of Patiala, respectively, mirror the ground realities.

First on rural and urban learnersí attitude towards the literacy campaign: The sample studied 365 adult neo-literates in the Mohali sub-division, of them 200 were rural and 165 urban.

It was found that the illiteracy percentage did not come down considerably despite there being universal, compulsory and free primary education for individuals up to 14 years.

The learners in the survey sample were in age group of 15 to 35 and so were volunteers (teachers), moreso in urban areas. This helped in better understanding and communication between the two. More than 83 per cent volunteers were secondary pass which effected the attitude of learners. The conclusion was that more qualified the volunteer, greater the psychological imprint on the beneficiary.

The study showed that rural "students" were more favourably disposed towards the concept of total literacy campaign than their urban counterparts. Neither urban nor rural were, however, averse to the programme. The urban learners wanted classes to be held close to their residence, while, rural learners wanted community centres or a common place for the same. The latter favoured red "local" volunteers.

Interestingly, both rural and urban learners did not favour kirtan/song activities in their classes. Since students are given primers, notebooks and pencils, both groups said relevant issues were in the primers.

The study found "attitudinal" or "behavioral" change in the learners on becoming neo-literate.

Community has a major role to play in such programmes. But the same was not forthcoming. Nevertheless, community leaders in rural areas played a more active role than the ones in urban areas to motivate adult learners to attend classes. But family members of urban students were found to be more motivating than rural families.

On the efficacy of the training programme of volunteers, the study has made the following observations:

Training is the most significant aspect of the Campaign since it holds the key to the success or failure of the programme. Therefore, it is essential to know what the trainer has to be taught and how. The training is three-tier: resource personnel, master trainers and volunteers who work at the cutting-edge.

Since the programme is based on three training components: information, skill development and orientation, the entire Campaign is operationalised through 1. motivation and mobilisation; 2. teaching learning; and 3. consolidation. The second aspect was found to be the "key" to the success of the Total Literacy Campaign. It is this key, which Anuradha Sharma found to be the "weakest".

The study sample was drawn from four sub-divisions, namely, Dera Bassi, Rajpura, Nabha and Patiala, involving 360 respondents.

A majority of volunteers were in 16-20 group; and 60 per cent were females. Of them over 90 per cent were educated up to class XII. The volunteers, thus, were teen-agers. If their energies were properly channelised and skills honed they could prove to be real catalysts to bring about the intended or desired behavioral change in the learnersí attitude.

Blackboard was the main means to teach and autio-visual aids were missing. All students volunteers came forward to hold classes voluntarily or by self-motivation.

The teenager volunteers demanded primers with alphabets for their adult students. They also suggested "story" , "religious" and "kisan-oriented" books for better effect. Rather than routine lecture teaching, learners wanted discussion-based classes which was not happening. If material provided to volunteers was of their choice results would be better.

The training programme suffered from system constraints. In the organisational facilities 45 per cent said there was no lunch/tea, 33 per cent said there were no sitting arrangements and 53 per cent said there was insufficient arrangement in the training programme.

The volunteers faced yet another handicap. Their training was not proper. It was of very short duration. They were not made aware how to motivate adults and make them learn, both theory and practical. Lecture method was insipid and monotonous. Discussion method was missing. Neither proper distribution of teaching material nor proper seating arrangements were there for them.

Volunteers said there was a large percentage of "drop-outs" among them. They were keen to learn how best to halt this trend. The number had come down from 9-12 per centre to 1-4 in some and 5-8 in others.



Career hotline

I want to become a film actor. Could you please tell me how I should go about it.

Abhishek Singh, Amritsar

If you possess the ability to visualise and relate to people or situations that exist in another mind, if you can project a mood or an emotion at the drop of a hat, if you can present a make-believe performance that may not be splendid but is convincing, then you could well take a swing at acting.

A good memory is necessary in order to learn parts quickly along with the stamina to cope with arduous rehearsals, countless retakes and outdoor shoots.

One way to start off is to first undertake a suitable course at a good acting school. NSD for instance, has contributed a mega-share of professionally trained actors to the Hindi screen. There are some good private schools as well but they can be pretty expensive. Participate in stage plays to get a hang of things, if nothing else.

However, if you are talented and in a hurry to get a job, you could bypass the formal training and plunge in straightaway. Get a portfolio done by a professional photographer and take a screen-test if possible to seek an unbiased professional opinion about your potential. While good looks are an asset, they are not everything. Itís your acting skills that really count. For instance, neither Naseeruddin Shah nor Nana Patekar have the conventional chocolate-box hero looks, but see how they electrify the screen with their performance!

If you are unable to procure work with any of the big banners, donít despair. A competent independent producer or production house with good projects could offer you better exposure and experience than a big name. Besides confidence, you will acquire polish and versatility which will hold you in good stead for the future. Regardless of where you start, do take advantage of every opportunity to learn.

Jobs in the film industry are rarely advertised. So, do try and crack an entry by approaching studios and production houses directly. Most successful entrants vouch for literally knocking on every door and relentlessly pursuing every lead to increase your chances of being called for an audition or screen test. Try assignments in television first - it is relatively easier to break into and can serve as an excellent springboard to Bollywood. Besides, TV offers more opportunities (there are many more serials than films being made in a year).

Also, if you are serious about a career in this industry, youíve got to be in one of the major centres: preferably Mumbai, Chennai or Calcutta. Conducting a job search from a remote place is impractical, so be prepared to move to one of these cities if you are really keen about getting your foot in the door.

I have completed my B.Sc.(Ag). Does any University offer an MBA in Agriculture Management?

Sagar Bhatti, Hoshiarpur

* IIM, Ahmedabad offers a 15-month Postgraduate Programme in Agri-Business Management (PGP-ABM). The course is oriented towards developing highly competent agri-business Managers with a rural as well as global orientation. The curriculum covers all the functional areas of the management with a focus on applications in the agricultural, food, rural and allied sectors of the academy. Need-based scholarships are also available. Admission to this programme is through the Common Admission Test (CAT). Those with a bachelorís or masterís degree in Agri or allied subjects are eligible.

Graduates in other streams with atleast 1-year of work-experience in a related field can also apply. The following universities offer an MBA (Agricultural Management).

* Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCHAU) Hisar.

Selection to the course at CCHAU is through an all-India written test which is open to graduates/postgraduates in any discipline with at least 50% marks.

* GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pant Nagar, U P Selection through written test, G D and interview at campus. Elig: 55% in B Sc(Horti/Forest/Agri/Agri Engg/A H /Home Sc/Vet Sc/Fisheries/) with 60%agg.

* Dr.Y S Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, D/o Mgt, Solan, Nauni Selection through written test, G D and interview at campus. Elig: 55% in B Sc(Horti/Forest/Agri/Agri Engg/AH/Home Sc) B A, B Com, BBA

* Punjab Agricultural University, D/o Business Mgt Selection through written test, G D and interview at campus.

Elig: Bachelorís/PG (Sc/ Agri/ Engg/ Vety/ Home Sc) with 60%agg (OCPA 6.00 out of 10.00)

* Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalya, Jabalpur Elig: B Sc Agri/Bio with 55%agg.

* University of Mysore offers 1-yr PG Diplomas in Agri Marketing Management, Agri planning & Mgt.

You have been guiding young people to choose their careers every week in these columns. I hope you will be able to help me. I am a 15-year-old student of Class XII (PCMB) preparing for IIT-JEE 2001. However, I have defective vision from birth (6x24 in right eye and 6 x 30 in left eye). My vision is not improving even with glasses. This triggers me to rethink about my future. Should I opt for engineering or something else?

Sachin Sadana, Malerkotla

Since I am not a medical expert (although I had dreams of becoming one), I consulted a senior eye-specialist in Delhi to help me guide you suitably.

Since your vision is not likely to improve (miracles canít be discounted) it may be better to choose a profession which involves more audio rather than visual oriented work. Try academic or intellectual pursuits like teaching or writing as a long term solution. Go in for postgraduation at any cost and nurture your writing and communication skills alongside.

Do learn typing. It will prove an invaluable asset. In fact, with advances in technology and the easy availability of sophisticated speech recognition software you would be able to function pretty normally at any computer related task. In fact, we now have computers with Braille and it may not be a bad idea to train on these while your vision still serves you well. Besides excellent computer application software, a variety of easy-to-use low-vision aids are also available. National Society for Prevention of Blindness, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Opthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 and Shah & Shah, a Calcutta based manufacturer may be worth contacting. Also National Institute of the Visually Handicapped, 116, Rajpur Road, Dehra Dun 248001 would be of great help in guiding you effectively.

As far as IITs, medical colleges and MCA courses go, the prescribed vision is as follows: corrected up to 6/9 in both eyes and 6/6 in the better eye.

This being the case, it may be prudent to look at avenues other than engineering, which involves detailed drawing and calculations, handling miniature circuitry, delicate instruments combined with long and arduous study. But itís certainly not the end of the road.

When one door closes, a hundred windows will open up for you. Take it as a challenge to spot them. There is no limit to what you can achieve and overcome if you really want to.

Of late, I have been receiving several letters containing queries directly at my office. Since most of them are unaddressed, thereís no way I can answer them separately. I would appreciate it if you could mail your queries to The Tribune instead.




Armed Forces

Indian Air Force

* Male Officers in Permanent Commission & Female Officers in Short Service Commission for Ground Duty Officers Course 2001.

Elig: Bachelorís Degree (60%). Born: Jul 2 Ď78-Jul 1 Ď81 or PG (50%) born: Jul 2 Ď76-Jul 1 Ď81.

Appln Format & Details: Employment News Aug 5 or website.

Aug 31 Indian Coast Guard, HQ, National Stadium Complex, Near Patiala House Courts, New Delhi 110001

* Recruitment of Diploma Holders (Electl/Electron Engg) as Yantriks (Technical Sailors).(2001 Jan)

Elig: Matric with Dip in Mech Engg (50%) (45% for SC/ST). Age: 22 years (27 for SC/ST, 25 for OBC) on Jul 1, 2001.

Appln Format & Details: Employment News 29 Jul - 4 Aug 2000.

Distance Education

Aug 21 Andhra University, (D/o Commerce & Mgt Studies & School of Distance Educn), Visakhapatnam 530003.


Elig: Bachelorís degree (other than BFA & BOL)/scores in MBACET-2000/ CA/ ICWA/ CS/ AMIE/ AIETE.

Appln F: Send Rs. 300/- by crossed DD favouring "Programme Director, MBA (DM)", payable at Visakhapatnam, with self-add, stamped (Rs. 6/-) envelope (11 cm x 5cm) or at counter, in cash.

Aug 31 Indian Institute of Human Rights, (in collab with Pondicherry Univ, D/o Distance Educn, Pondi), Green Gate, A 14-15-16, Paryavaran Complex, South of Saket, Maidan Garhi Mg, New Delhi 110030.


* Master of Human Rights (2 yr)

Elig: Bachelorís degree (10+2+3).

Appln F: Send Rs. 125/- by DD favouring "The Finance Officer, Pondicherry University", payable at New Delhi to the Programme Coordinator, Pondicherry Univ MHR Prog at the above add. At counter: Rs. 100/- cash.

Sep 30 Pondicherry Univ, D/o Distance Education, Pondicherry 605014. Ph: 0413-655257

* Bachelorís (3 yr):

Business Admin, Commerce, Corporate Secretaryship (BCS), Mktg Mgt (BMM), Foreign Trade (BFT), BCA

* Masters (2 yr): Mktg Mgt (MMM), Financial Mgt (MFM), Foreign Trade (MFT), Human Resource Mgt (MHRM), Public Mgt (MPM), MA (Hist/Sociol/Hin/Pol Sc)

* PG Dip (1 yr): Business Admin, Inttl Business, Mktg Mgt, Financial Mgt, Banking & Finance, Operations Research, Portfolio Mgt, Human Resource Mgt, Tourism Admin, Comp Appln, Pharma Mktg, Software Mktg, Agricultural Mktg, Co-op Mgt, Insurance Mgt (1-yr)

Elig: UG: HSC (10+2/10+1) or Dip-holder (3-yr).

BCA: 10+2 (Maths/Busi Maths/Phy/Stats/Comp Appl as a subj).

PG: Bachelorís degree (10+2+3/11+2+2/11+1+3).

PG Dip: Bachelorís degree

PGDCA: Bachelorís degree (non-open univ)/AMIE/IETE.

Appln F: Send Rs. 100/- by DD favouring "The Finance Officer, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry", payable at Pondi with two self-addressed slips, and unstamped envelope (26 cm x 17 cm).

Sep 30 Guru Ghasidas University, Instt. of Distance Educn, Bilaspur 495009.

(1) BCA

(2) BBA

(3) Bachelor of Journ & Mass Comm (BJMC) (1-yr)

(4) BLibI Sc (1-yr)

(5) PG Dip in Computer Appln (1-yr)

(6) PG Dip in Business Mgt (1-yr)

(7) PG Dip in Marketing Mgt (1-yr)

(8) PG Dip in Ind. Rel., L.W. & P.M. (1-yr)

(9) MLibI Sc (1-yr)

Elig: (1) & (2): 10+2

(3)-(8): Bachelorís degree

(9): BLibI Sc

Appln F: Send Rs. 150/- by DD favouring "The Registrar, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495009, M.P.", to the Director at above add. At counter: Rs. 125/- cash.

Sep 30 Indira Gandhi National Open Univ, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110068.

1. MA (Eng) (2 yr)

2. PG Dip in Intnl Business Operations (PGDIBO) (1 yr)

Elig: (1): BA/BCom/BSc or equiv.

(2): Bachelorís in any discipline.

Appln F: Send Rs. 80/- by IPO/DD favouring "IGNOU" payable at New Delhi or nearest study centre. Write name & add on the reverse of DD.

Engg & Phys

Sikkim Manipal Instt. of Technology, 5th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok, Sikkim.


Aug 12 1) BE (4 yr) Comp, Info Tech, Electron & Comm, Electl & Electron Aug 25 2) MSc (Appl Phy)

Elig: (1): Class XII (PCM (50%) & Eng)

(2): BSc (H) (Phy) (45%) or BSc (Gen) (10+2+3) with Phys.

Appln F: Send Rs. 250/- by DD favouring "SMIT, Gangtok" payable at Gangtok. At counter: in cash:

1) Sikkim House, 12, Panchsheel Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021.

Fashion Technology

Aug 18 National Instt of Fashion Technology (M/o Textiles, GoI), NIFT Campus, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016. (Edit Add) Ph: 6964771, 6965080

* Cert in Production Tech (1 yr) (At 7 centres) Elig: 10+2

Appln F: Send Rs. 100/- by DD favouring "NIFT, New Delhi". Also in cash at counter or from:

NIFT, Plot No. 3B, Block LA, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Calcutta 700091. Ph: 3358872


Aug 21 The Indian Law Institute, Bhagwandass Rd, New Delhi 110 001.

* PG Diplomas (1 yr):

Admin L, Corporate Laws & Mgt; Environ, Labour L, Tax L, Intellectual Property Rights; Intnl Trade Law including ADRs; Human Rights L; Internet-

Cyber L. Elig: LLB

Appln F: At counter: Rs. 100/-, in cash.


Aug 20 Mewar Institute of Management, R-2/14, Raj Nagar, Ghaziabad 201002. (Affl to Ch. Charan Singh Univ, Meerut).


1. Master on Computer Sc (MCS)

2. Master in Business Economics (MBE)

3. LLB

Elig: (1): Bachelors Degree (50%) with maths/BCA/BE

(2): Bachelorís degree in any discipline

(3): Bachelorís/Masters Degree (45%).

Appln F: Send Rs. 300/- (MCS/MBE) & Rs. 200/- (LLB) favouring "Mewar Institute of Management, Ghaziabad". At counter also.

Birla Institute of Management Technology, Sector-IV, Pushpa Vihar, New Delhi 110017 Ph: 6969250. Email:

* PG Dip:

1) Business Mgt (PT, 1 yr)

2) Insurance & Risk Mgt (FT 1 yr, PT 11/2 yr)

Elig: (1): Working Execs/Entrepreneurs

(2): Grads/Insu & Fin sector professionals.

Selectn: GD & Interview

Appln F: Contact Instt. Nursing

Aug 25 School of Nursing, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital (G/o NCT of Delhi), Shahdara, Delhi 110095.

* Dip in General Nursing & Midwifery

Elig: Unmarried females/widows, 10+2 (50%) (45% for SC/ST). Age: Above 17 yrs (23 yrs for SC/ST) on Oct 1, 2000.

Appln F: At counter: Rs. 50/-, in cash.


Aug 31 M/o HRD, GoI, D/o Education, External Scholarship Divn, ES-1, Section A-1/W.3, Curzon Rd Barracks, KG Marg, New Delhi 110003.

A) Commonwealth Scholarships & Fellowships, 2000, UK For hr studies, Res & Spl Trng in: Medical/Non-medical fields; Technology; Sc (Pure & Appld); Agri; Humanities & Social Sc; Doctroal or Equiv; Masters/Clinical Training/Research; Phd Degree

Details of Appln F: Employment News 1-7 Jul.

Teaching & Education

Aug 18 Govt School of Arts, (D/o Industrial Training & Vocational Education, Haryana) Rohtak

* Art & Craft Teacher Training (2 yr)

Elig: Matric with Hindi/Drawing/Fine Arts. Age: Below 25 yrs (31 & 45 yrs in case of SC/ST and Ex-Servicemen/War Widows).

Selectn: Interview/Admission on Aug 28.

Appln F: At counter, Rs. 20/- in cash.

Aug 21 Univ of Jammu, New Campus, Baba Saheb Ambedkar Road, Jammu (Tawi) 180006.

* BEd

Appln F: Send Rs. 300/- by DD favouring "Registrar, University of Jammu", payable at SBI (Code 0657) with self-addressed, stamped (Rs. 40/-) envelope (22x30 cm) to the Asst. Registrar (Forms & Stationery) at the above address before Aug 18.

Aug 30 Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416004 (Maha)

* Dip in Population Educn (Corresp)

Elig: PG (II Div)/BEd with work ex (attach cert)

Appln F: Send Rs. 25/- by DD/IPO/MO.

CARING (Career Information & Guidance), New Delhi



UGC warning

THANE(PTI): The University Grants Commission (UGC) has in a communication warned the students not to take admission to fake educational institutions and universities.

The UGC Joint Secretary, Dr Mrs Naseem Bhatia, has released a list of such institutions and universities which is as follows:

1) Maithili University, Darbangha, Bihar. 2) Mahila Gram Vidyapeeth/ University (Mahila Vidyapeeth), Prayag, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. 3) Varanasi Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya, Varanasi (UP)/ Jagatpuri, Delhi. 4) Commercial University, Daryaganj, Delhi. 5) Indian Education Council of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow. 6) Gandhi Hindi Vidyapeeth, Prayag, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. 7) National University of Electro Complex Homoepathy, Kanpur. 8) Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Open University, Achaltal, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. 9) DDB Sanskrit University, Puttur, Tiruchi, Tamil Nadu. 10) St. Johnís University, Kishanattam, Kerala. 11) United Nations University, Delhi. 12) Vocational University, Delhi. 13) Uttar Pradesh Vishvavidyalaya, Kosi Kalan, Mathura, (Uttar Pradesh). 14) Maharana Pratap Sikhsha Niketan Vishvavidyalaya, Pratapgadh, (Uttar Pradesh). 15) Raja Arabic University, Nagpur. 16) Kesarvani Vidhyapeeth, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. 17) Delhi Vishvavid-hvapeeth, 233, Tagore Park, Model Town, Delhi. 18) Bandganvi Sarkar World Open University Education Society, Gokak, Belgaum (Karnataka).