EDUCATION TRIBUNE Tuesday, June 5, 2001, Chandigarh, India

Womenís literacy rate mere 39 per cent
NDIA has the largest population of non-school going working girls. The Constitution guarantees free primary education for both boys and girls up to the age of 14. This goal has been repeatedly reiterated, but primary education is not universal.



Womenís literacy rate mere 39 per cent

INDIA has the largest population of non-school going working girls. The Constitution guarantees free primary education for both boys and girls up to the age of 14. This goal has been repeatedly reiterated, but primary education is not universal.

Overall, the literacy rate for women is 39 per cent against 64 per cent for men.

Attendance rates from the 1981 census suggest that no more than one-third of all girls aged 5-14 attend school. Although substantial progress has been achieved since India gained independence in 1947 when less than 8 per cent of females were literate, the gains have however not been rapid enough to keep pace with the population growth.

The cause for the sad situation is the view of the parents that education of girls brings no returns to parents. However, in urban India the view is changing as more and more families are taking up family planning and treating their daughters no less than their sons. But rural India which constitutes around 70 per cent of the population, is still orthodox in its their approach.

The irony is that in spite of the fact that women contribute much to society, they work longer hours and their work is more arduous than menís. Yet men report that women, like children, eat and do nothing.

Many maintain that womenís economic dependence on men impacts their power within the family. With increased participation in income-earning activities, not only will there be more income for the family, but gender inequality would be reduced. This issue is particularly salient in India because studies show a very low level of female participation in the labour force.

This under-reporting is attributed to the frequently held view that womenís work is not economically productive. But sadly if all activities-including maintenance of kitchen gardens and poultry, grinding foodgrains, collecting water and firewood,etc are taken into account, 88 per cent of rural housewives and 66 per cent of urban housewives can be considered as economically productive.

Thatís not all in recent years. There has been an alarming rise in atrocities against women in India. Every 26 minutes a woman is molested; every 34 minutes a rape takes place; every 42 minutes a sexual harassment incident occurs; every 43 minutes a woman is kidnapped and every 93 minutes a woman is burnt to death over dowry.

One-quarter of the reported rapes involve girls under the age of 16, but the vast majority are not reported. Although the penalty is severe, convictions are rare.

An overview of the situation shows that there remains lot to be desired in the field of women empowerment. The irony is that in spite of 2001 being the Year of Women Empowerment, the Womení Bill which was introduced in Parliament in 1998 and seeks to reserve a certain percentage of seats in Parliament, still waits to see the light of dawn. Can we still call ourselves progressive? ANI



Career Queries Hotline

Q I am doing BA (H) in Political Science at DAV College, Chandigarh. In Class XII, I got 69 % (PCM). On completing graduation, will I be eligible to join the Indian Air Force as a pilot after clearing the CDSE conducted by the UPSC?

Amrik Surjawal.

A Although you can take the Combined Defence Services Examination (CDSE) on completing your graduation, you may not be eligible for joining the Indian Air Force as a Pilot as a BSc with Physics and/or Mathematics or Bachelor of Engineer-ing are mandatory requirements.

However, you can still take the CDSE to qualify for the Army wing as well as for officer-level jobs in the various wings of the Armed Forces. Eligibility for these jobs is as follows: For Army Wing: Graduation. Age & Marital Status: Unmarried males aged between 19-24 years.

Officer-level jobs: Graduation. Age & Marital Status: Married or unmarried males aged between 19-25 years.

For further information, you may contact:

The Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, New Delhi 110011.

Director Recruiting (Officer Selection), Army HQ: West Block-III, R.K. Puram, New Delhi 110066.

Q I am in Class X, I am keen on pursuing a career in the field of environment. Can you please tell me about the universities offering this subject at the BSc level? Also, what subjects should I opt for in 10+2?

Ruchir Sharma.

A If you wish to do a BSc in Environmental Sciences, then you will have to opt for the PCB (Physics, Chemistry, & Biology) stream. But for a BE/BTech in Environmental Engineering, you need to have Maths as a subject at 10+2 level The following universities offer Environmental Sciences at the BSc level:

Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar, Distt. Ganjam, Berhampur 760007, Orissa. Eligibility: Class XII.

Bharathiar University, Maruthamalai Road, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu. Eligibility: Class XII.

University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, Eligibility: Class XII with 40% aggregate.

Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003, Manipur. Eligibility: Class XII.

University of Mysore, Crawford Hall, Mysore 570005, Karnataka, Eligibility: Class XII.

Patna University, Patna 800005, Bihar. Eligibility: Class XII with Biology as a subject. University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra. Course: BSc (Applied - Environmental Pollution). Duration: 1 year. Eligibility: BSc with maths in Class XII with 60% marks.

South Gujarat University, Post Box No. 49, Udhna Magdalla Road, Surat 395007, Gujarat. Eligibility: Class XII with four Science subjects including Maths.

Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Dhyanteerth, Gautam Nagar, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431603, Maharashtra. Eligibility: 10+2 with English, Physics, Maths Chemistry and Biology as subjects.

Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science & Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore 641043, Tamil Nadu. Course: Environmental Biology. Eligibility: Class XII with concerned subject.

Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Pratap Nagar, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan. Course: Environmental Biology. Eligibility: 10+2 with 50% aggregate.

Bharathidasan University, Palkailaiperur, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu. Course: Environmental Zoology. Eligibility: Class XII.

Assam University, PB No. 63, Distt. Cachar, Silchar 788001, Assam. Course: Environmental studies at BA level.

Q Iím preparing for my MBA entrance tests next year. Being a woman, is it better to opt for softer options like Human Resources or Personnel Management rather than go in for the highly competitive and demanding fields like Marketing or Finance?

Harkirth Minhas.

A Whichever way you look at it, management is by no means a Ďsoftí career option. Itís a highly tough and demanding profession, no matter what function you choose. Although HR and Personnel are commonly considered soft areas, believe me, the reality is quite otherwise. For instance, even though most organizations claim to work from nine to five, the reality you will soon discover is that itís only your pink collared colleagues like the receptionist and telephone operator who manage to leave on time. This does not apply to the managerial staff, which may be required to put in far longer hours (and at times, even weekends). And donít expect exceptions to be made for you in any way simply because you are a woman ó none will be. On the contrary, be prepared to work harder and smarter than your male colleagues. Sounds intimidating? No. Challenging? Certainly!

Q I have completed Class XII and am keen on studying at the Film & Television Institute. Please provide me details.

Nakul Pasricha.

A Since you have not mentioned which film institute, I am providing details for the FTII, Pune and the FTI, Tamil Nadu.

Film and Television Institute of India, Law College Road, Pune 411004.

Courses: 1)Basic Course in Film and Television. 2) Certificate Course in Film Direction ; Cinematography; Audiography; & Editing. 3) Diploma Course in Film Direction; Cinematography; Audiography; & Editing.

Duration: 1 year.

Qualification: For the Basic Course - Degree in any discipline from any recognized university (Physics, as one of the subjects , atleast at the 10 + 2 level is necessary for those wishing to specialise in Audiography Subsqu-ently).

Selection Procedure: Performance in the written exam to be conducted at Allahabad, Bhopal, Chennai, Bhubaneshwar, Kolkata, Gawhati, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Pune, and Tiruvananthapuram and then an interview.

Film and Television Institute of Tamil Nadu, CIT Campus, Chennai 600113.

Courses: 1) Diploma in Direction and Screenplay Writing.

2) Diploma in Cinematography.

3) Diploma in Sound Recording & Sound Engineering.

4) Diploma in Film Processing.

5) Diploma in Film Editing.

Duration: 2/3 years.

Qualification: Course: (1) University Degree.

Courses (2), (3), & (4): Class XII pass or an equivalent exam with Physics and Chemistry.

Course (5): XII pass or an equivalent exam in any discipline.

Selection Procedure: Same as FTII, Pune.

Q I have completed Class XII this year and would like to go abroad for further studies. What is the basic criteria for choosing a course in a foreign university?

Navjot Bindra.

A Typically the higher education sector in USA, UK or even Australia offers a bewildering choice of courses and combinations running into several thousands. Therefore, in addition to selecting a course that is best suited to your aspirations and aptitude, you should also consider the following:

1. the type of degree (undergraduate, postgraduate, associate, etc.)

2. the subject options available

3. the potential availability of postgraduate studies in the field

4. the size and facilities offered by the institution

5. extra-curricular facilities

6. financial support offered to students by the institution

7. location and climate

8. proximity to relatives/friends living in the country

9. availability of accommodation.

Scanning the information available in the reference section of the concerned embassy or High Commission would be of considerable help. You could search either on the basis of subject, institution or type of course. For USA, contact the nearest USEFI center. For UK, the nearest British Council office, and for Australia, the Australian High Commission or IDP offices in Delhi, Mumbai or Chennai. You could contact the following information centres:

United States Educational Foundation in India (USEFI), 12, Hailey Road, New Delhi 110001.

Canadian Education Centre, D 1/56, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi 110057.

British Council Division, British High Commission, 17 Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110001.

Australian High Commission, 1/50, G Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021 OR IDP Education Australia, Suites 20/21, S1 GF, International Trade Tower, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110019. Also in Mumbai, Chennai and Chandigarh.

You could also get a lot of information regarding courses from various wesites. Each university has its own. There are several composite websites that give you complete list of courses for each country. You should also look at the rankings published by independent bodies like the US News & World Report and the Kaplan Newsweek Suppliment published each year for American colleges. Similarily, the Sunday Times University Guide is also a very handy source of reference for studying in UK.



Admission deadline

Armed Forces

Jul 02 Army Medical Corps, Director General Armed Forces Medical Services/DG-IA, M/o Defence, ĎLí Block, New Delhi 110001.

Medical Officers, for Short Service Commission in the Army Medical Corps.

Elig: MBBS below 45 yrs.

Appln F: See Employment News: 26 May ó 1 June.

Jul 05 Indian Navy, D/o Manpower Planning & Recruitment, Naval HQ, Room No. 204, ĎCí Wing, Sena Bhawan, New Delhi 110011.

Admission to the Naval College of Engineering, Lonavla (Pune)

Elig: Unmarried Indian Males below 19 yrs.

10+2 (70% Agg) PCM.

Selection: Short listed candidates will be called for SSB interview (5 days).

Appln F: See Employment news: 26 May - 1 June.

Applied Sc

Jun 20 Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women (G/o NCT, University of Delhi), Jhilmil Colony, Vivek Vihar, Delhi 110095.

Ph: 2146024

Bachelor of Applied Sc in:

Electronics, Instrumentation, Food Tech

Appln F: Send Rs 100/- by DD favoring "Principal, Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, Delhi" with stamped (Rs 20/-) self-addressed envelope (10"x8"), to the above address (Extra form Rs 5/-).


Jun 11 Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi (With Zee Interactive Learning Systems Ltd), J-107, 1st Floor, South Ext. Part 1, New Delhi-110049.


Bachelors in E-Commerce (Be-com) & Software Systems (BSS)

Appln F: Send Rs. 550/-by DD favouring "Zee Interactive Learning Systems Limited", payable at New Delhi at above address. At counter: Rs 500/- (cash).

Jun 20 University of Delhi, D/o Computer Science, Arts Faculty Extn Building, Room No. 303, Delhi-110 007.

PG Diploma in Comp Applications (PGDCA)-2001 (11/2 yrs)

Elig: Bachelorís Degree (50% Agg) Maths at +2 level.

Test: 8 July.

Appln F: Send Rs. 25/- by (SBI) DD favouring "Registrar, University of Delhi", payable at SBI Service Branch along with stamped (Rs. 12/-) self addressed envelope (10" x 8") to S.K Soni, Office In-charge at the above address.

Distance Ed

Aug 31 Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110068.


Certificate Programe, Diploma, Bachelors Degree, Masters Degree and PG Dip in various branches of Sc, Commerce and Arts

Appln F: Send Rs 80/-by DD favouring "IGNOU" payable at New Delhi or at the Regional Centers. At counter: Rs 30/- (cash).


Shri G.S. Institute of Technology & Science, 23 Park Road, (Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Viswavidyalaya) Indore-4502003, (MP).

Jun 30 MSc Courses in Appld Physics/Appld Chem/Appld Maths.

Jul 10 ME/MTech/MPharm in various disciplines (FT) (GATE, Non-GATE, NRI, Sponsored)

Elig: Bachelorís in Engg/Tech/Pharma & Sc.

Appln F: Send Rs.300/- by DD Favouring "Director , SGSITS, Indore", payable at Indore along with self addressed stamped (Rs 50/-)envelope

(35x25 cm) to the Director at above address. From Account section: Rs 300/- (cash).

Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (Pb).

Jun 7 MTech

Jun 9 MCA

Test: 23 Jun MTech, 26 Jun MCA.

Appln F: Send Rs 200/- by DD favouring "Registrar, Punjabi University, Patiala" along with self-addressed, stamped (Rs 60/-) envelope (12"x9") to the, Publication Bureau at the above address. At counter: Rs 200/- (cash). Clearly indicate the course applied for.

Jun 21 Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 125001.


UG, PG, MTech in various disciplines

Appln F: Send Rs 550/- by DD favouring "Registrar GJU, Hisar" payable at Hisar to the above address. At counter: Rs 500/- (cash).

Environ (Dist)

Jun 30 Institute of Environment & Management, Kursi Road, Lucknow 226021.

Ph: 760876.

PG Diploma in Environmental Mgt (3 yrs, Corresp)

Elig: Bachelorís in any discipline.

Appln F: Send Rs 30/- by DD favouring "IEM" payable at Lucknow. At counter: Rs 30/-(cash).

Jun 30 Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical & Technological Sciences (With Indian Institute of Ecology & Environment), A-15, Paryavaran Complex, South of Saket, New Delhi-110030.


Msc. (2 yrs.)

Ecology & Environment, Disaster Mitigation, Sustainable Development

Elig: Bachelors Degree in any discipline.

Test: At 32 Centers including Bílore, Channai, Kolkata and Delhi.

Appln F: Send Rs 50/- by DD favouring "Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment" payable at New Delhi. At counter: Rs 50/-(cash).


Jun 30 National Institute of Fashion Technology M/o Textiles (GoI), NIFT Campus, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016.


Garment Export Merchandise Mgt (1 yr)

Elig: Bachelors Degree with 1 yr relevant work exp.

Fee: Rs 50,000/-.

Appln F: Send Rs 100/- by DD favouring "NIFT, New Delhi" to CE Department at above address.


Jun 02 Institute of Management Studies, Himachal Pradesh University, IMS, Shimla-171005.

Ph: 230938, 231653

Website: www.

Combined Management Aptitude Test (CMAT) for MBA, MIBA, MPM & MFC

Appln F: Visit website or contact IMS office.

Jun 16 Guru Nanak Instt. of Management, Rd No. 75, GHPS Complex, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110026.

Tel: 5158927, 5178362

PG Dip in Business Management (2 yrs, FT)

Elig: Bachelorís Degree (50% agg).

Selctn: Entrance Test, GD and interview.

Appln F: Send Rs 400/- by DD favouring "Guru Nanak Institute of Management" payable at New Delhi, to the above address.


Jun 11 Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University Pratap Nagar, Udaipur-313003 (Rajasthan).

All India CET-2001:

(1) BHMS (5 1/2 yrs)

(2) BPT (5 yrs)

Elig: 10+2 PCB (50% Agg).

Test: 17 June at 8 Centers including New Delhi & Karnal.

Appln F: Send Rs 350/- by DD favouring "R.V. Homeopathic Medical College", payable at Udaipur at the above address.

Performing Arts

Jun 01 University of Delhi, Deptt of Music, (F/o Music & Fine Arts) Shri Sankar Lal Institute of Music, University Road, Delhi-110007.

PhD/MPhil (Philosophy)

MA (Arts 2-yr)

BA (Hons 3-yr)

Dip in Sangeet Shiromani (1-yr)

Certificate Course (1-yr) (only for foreigners)

Appln F: Send Rs 50/- for each course by DD favouring "Registrar, University of Delhi, Delhi" payable at SBI, (Code 7687), along with a self-addressed, stamped (Rs 18/-), envelope (25x18 cm) to K.S. Krishna, Section Officer at the above address.


Jun 30 M/o Human Resource Development, D/o Culture, CDN Section, Room No. 333, ĎCí Wing, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi 110001.

Fellowships in Literature, Indian Classical Music, Dance, Theatre, Visual Arts, Indigenous Folk & Traditional Performing Arts 2001-02

Senior Fellowships: (Rs 6000/- pm).

Junior Fellowships: (Rs 3000/- pm).

Appln F: See leading newspapers.

Jun 09 National Board for Higher Mathematics (D/o Atomic Energy) 2nd FLoor, OYC Bldg, C.S.M. Marg, Mumbai 400001.

Scholarships For PG Studies in Mathematics (MA/MSc) (2 yrs)

Scholarship: Rs. 1200/- pm for 2 yrs.

Elig: Bachelorís degree or equiv. (1st Div) Age: Below 22 yrs.

Appln Format: See leading dailies.

Jun 28 Rashtriya Jagriti Sansthan, NCTP, PO Box 4081, New Delhi 110017.

Tel/Fax: 6866983, Ph: 6963389


Jagriti Independence Scholarships 2001-02

1) Class XI & XII (Rs. 4200/- pa)

2) Class IX & X (Rs.3600/- pa)

3) Class VII & VIII (Rs. 3000/- pa)

Test: 11 Nov. at 34 centres including Delhi, Patna, Chandigarh

Appln F: Send stamped (Rs. 9/-) self-addressed envelope (9" x 6") to the above address.


Jun 25 Dr Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, D/o Corresp Courses, Sagar-470003 (MP).

UG, PG & Post Diploma courses in various discipline

Appln F: Send Rs 125/- by DD favouring "Registrar, Dr. H.S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar", payable at SBI University Branch (Code 1143) along with self-addressed envelop (28x10 cm).


Jun 25 Union Public Service Commission , Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-110011.


Geologistís Examination, 2001

Elig: Masters Degree in Geology, Applied Geology, Marine Geology, Mineral Exploration, Hydrogeology or Diploma of Associateship in Applied Geology of the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.



Lesson in English
By W.L. Gordon

Words often misused:

Do not say, "Whom shall I say is calling?"

Say, "WHO shall I say is calling?"

Often Mispronounced:

Harangue. Pronounced "ha-rang" with an accent on the second syllable.

Often misspelled:

Annoyance ó observe the initial two "nís."

Anointment ó only one initial Ďíníí.


Belief ó faith, trust, confidence, credence, reliance, assurance, avowal, admission, conviction, opinion, concession.

Word study:

"Use a word three times and it is yours." Let us increase our vocabulary by mastering one word each day.

Todayís word: Interregnum (noun) ó interruption or pause in continuity, as of ruling power; temporary suspension of the normal functions of government. Pronounced "in-ter-reg-num" with an accent on the third syllable.

E.g. "Martial law was imposed in the country during the interregnum".