EDUCATION TRIBUNE Tuesday, November 20, 2001, Chandigarh, India
  2 Punjab varsities violate AICTE Act?
Santokh Singh Aujla

HE two universities of Punjab, Punjab Technical University and Punjabi University, took a significant decision to commercialise the computer education. Punjab Technical University introduced franchisee business system and Punjabi University opted for collaboration with private computer companies.

Guide me on a career in defence services through NDA

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2 Punjab varsities violate AICTE Act?
Santokh Singh Aujla

THE two universities of Punjab, Punjab Technical University and Punjabi University, took a significant decision to commercialise the computer education. Punjab Technical University introduced franchisee business system and Punjabi University opted for collaboration with private computer companies.

PTU divided Punjab and Chandigarh in six zones. One zone consists of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir and the other the rest of India. One master company is appointed as agency of PTU in each zone to grant permission to parties, forms and individuals desirous of establishing computer education centres. PTU has also evolved a formula to share money collected from students as fee. Thirty per cent of the money collected from the students shall go to PTU, 25 % to the master company and 45% to parties who establish computer centres in particular zones.

The All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) through a newspaper advertisement in the month of July expressed its grave concern regarding unapproved technical courses being offered by institutions. However, both universities assured students through advertisements and press conferences about the legality and validity of courses being offered by them. Now the University Grants Commission has asked various universities not to commercialise computer education. Since then conflicting reports have appeared in the press regarding the legal status of these courses. Students are confused and worried about their career and money.

Two core issues are involved in this controversy. One regarding supremacy and jurisdiction of the AICTE in field of technical education and other of commercialisation of technical education AICTE is a statutory authority in the field of technical education established by an Act of Parliament in 1987. The objectives of the AICTE Act as declared in its preamble clearly states the intention of Parliament.

The idea is to provide for proper planning and coordinated development of a technical education system throughout the country at all levels. It is further made clear that the council is to be established for promotion of improvement in technical and management education.

In Chapter 3 of the AICTE Act, powers and functions of the council are elaborated. The opening words of Section 10 are extremely significant. The statutory duty of the council is to take all steps necessary for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical and management education as also maintenance of standards. For discharging its duty, the council is empowered to do various things as specified in various sub-clauses of Section 10 of the Act.

Since 1987 many technical education institutions and universities have challenged the supreme authority of the AICTE. But merely because the sub-clause (K) of Section 10 uses the phrase “technical institutions” and in Section 2 (H) a university is not included therein, it does not mean that a university or any other entity for that matter which imparts technical education will not be covered by the provisions of the Act.

The object of the Act is clear. Standardisation of the Technical Education system in the entire country and its upliftment at all levels is the avowed object. It cannot be achieved if the rigours of the Act is applied only to some institution and not others.

The idea is to cover all bodies and entities which impart technical education at all levels throughout the country. Therefore, functions of the council as stated in Section 10 of the Act were made to apply both to technical institution as well as universities imparting Technical Education.

The issue as to whether universities would be covered in so far as Section 10(K) is concerned came up for interpretation before a full Bench of the Andhra Pradesh High Court. W.P. No. 19652-96. The court considered the matter in detail and interpreted various provisions of the AICTE Act, 1987. The court held that the AICTE Act is a special Act and will override all other Acts, in case of conflict in matters relating to Technical Education.

On this specific issue the court held that no college, institution, government, university, the UGC, state council on any other authority concerned in technical education can escape the provisions of the act, rules and regulations.

A Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court interpreted the AICTE Act in the Unnikrishnan’s vs Andhra Pradesh Government (1993) in para no. 156. The court held that vast powers conferred upon the council by Section 10.91 clearly laid down that the council can issue an order that no engineering college or other college or institution imparting technical education shall be established except with the permission of the council.

The court added that council can also say that even in existing institutions, no new course, faculty or class shall be opened without its approval. It can also pass appropriate directions to the existing institutions as well for achieving the purpose of the Act.

The Supreme Court again had an occasion to examine the scope of the AICTE Act in state of Tamil Nadu vs Adhiyaman Educational and Research Institute (1995). The court held. “Since the standards have to be laid down on a national level, they have necessarily to be uniform throughout the country, without which the coordinated and integrated development of the technical education all over the country will not be possible which will defeat one of the main objects of the statute.

In view of the AICTE Act, 1987, and above mentioned judgement of courts it can be concluded that the council is empowered to take steps for proper planning and coordinated development of technical education throughout the country. It would be anomalous to exclude universities imparting technical education from within its scope.

The other contentious issue is of commercialisation of technical education. It demands a close and objective scrutiny. Our national policy on education passed by Parliament in 1986 declares in para no 6.20 that commercialisation of technical and professional education will be curbed. In AICTE Act (1987) Section 10(N) clearly lays down that the council shall take all necessary steps to prevent commercialisation of technical education.

The Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court in the Unnikrishnan vs Andhra Pradesh Government case observed in para no. 164, “Education has never been commerce in this country. Making it one, is opposed to ethos, tradition and sensibilities of this nation. The argument to the contrary has a unholy ring to it. The imparting of education has never been treated as a trade or business in this country since times immemorial. It has been treated as a religious duty. It has been treated as a charitable activity. But never as trade and business”.

The court also held in para 89 that it would be unrealistic and unwise to discourage private initiative in providing educational facilities particularly for higher education. The court further held that it does not mean that one should tolerate substandard colleges with scarce facilities and unhealthy atmosphere.

“Such of them must be put down ruthlessly with an iron hand. They are poisonous weeds in field of education. Their only aim is to make money, driving hard bargain, exploiting eagerness to acquire a professional degree which would be a passport for employment in country rampant with unemployment. They could be even called pirates in the high seas of education.”

In the same judgement (para no. 160) the court evolved a formula for fixing fee for technical colleges. The court held that colleges will be permitted to recover only a graded percentage of the average cost of student education, depending on whether the institution is government funded, government aided or unaided. According to these guidelines, it is stated, the student will be asked to pay 20% of cost in government funded institutions and 30-35% in aided and 70% in unaided institutions.

The court further stated that the cost and fee structure shall be determined by a high-level committee consisting of the Vice-Chancellor, Secretary, Education and Director, Technical Education of the state.

Thus, it clearly indicates the intentions of the Supreme Court. That nobody should be allowed to make money out of imparting technical education. Even in case of unaided, privately managed colleges, the managements shall have to mobilise 30% of its total costs from other sources other than students.

The Supreme Court further held in the same case (para no. 170) that no individual, firm, company or other body of individuals by whatever appellation called will be permitted to establish and/or administer a professional college.

So our National Education Policy (1986), the All-India Council of Technical Education Act (1987) and Supreme Court rulings make it absolutely clear that commercialisation of technical education is not permitted and the AICTE is the supreme statutory authority in the field of technical education.

PTU and Punjabi University not only challenged the authority of the AICTE but also violated the rulings of the Supreme Court and the Act of Parliament. Though the university authorities have amassed crores of rupees by enrolling thousand of students in these unapproved courses, ignoring the laws of the land the real sufferers are innocent students. Who should be held responsible for the mental agony, loss of prime time, wastage of money and their ruined career?


Guide me on a career in defence services through NDA

Q I’m interested in a career in the defence services through the NDA. Please provide me some information.

Pradeep Kumar

A The eligibility for the Army Wing of the NDA is 10+2 or equivalent. That for the Air Force and Naval Wings of the NDA and the 10+2 (Exec Branch) Course of the Naval Academy is 10+2 (Phy & Maths).

Students appearing in the Class 12 Boards can also apply.

The age limit is roughly 15 1/2-18 yrs (dob: 2 Jan ‘84 - 1Jul ‘86).

The NDA and Naval Academy Exam (I) is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission twice a year in April and December.

The Selection Interview is conducted by the Services Selection Board (SSB).

The courses commence in January and July each year.

Detailed advertisements appear twice each year in leading newspapers and Employment News in Apr/May and Nov/Dec. You can also log on to


Q What careers will be open to me if I take up Sociology? Could you also suggest from where I could do MA (Sociology) through correspondence?

Sachin Bhatia

A If you are interested in people, culture and customs sociology may be an interesting field for you. Although it’s not essentially a job related subject, students of sociology head for the civil services or join anthropological or environmental movements. While many work in NGOs, some others with higher qualifications also take up developmental projects for international bodies like the UN. Yet others, join TISS or any of the good universities offering MSW and go in for social work, research or teaching. Social media is another emerging field you could consider.

MA (Sociology) is offered through correspondence at several universities.

* Annamalai University, Directorate of Distance Education, Annamalainagar 608002.

* Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Institute of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education, Meerut 250002 (UP).

* Kakatiya University, School of Distance Learning and Continuing Education, Warangal 506009 (AP).

* Lalit Narayan Mithila University, Directorate of Distance Education, Kameshwaranagar, Darbhanga 846004 (Bih).

* Madurai Kamaraj University, Directorate of Distance Education, University Buildings, Palkalainagar, Madurai 625021 (TN).

* Osmania University, Centre for Distance Education, Hyderabad 500007 (AP).

* SNDT Women’s University, Centre for Distance Education, Sir Vithaldas Vidyavihar, Juhu Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400049 (Mah).

The typical eligibility criterion is a Bachelor’s Degree in the relevant subject.


Q I am keenly interested in doing PG in Forestry. Could you please suggest some universities offering this course?

Rajinder Mahala

A You could do MSc (Forestry) from the following six institutions:

* Forest Research Institute, PO New Forest, Dehra Dun 243006 (Utt)

* Guru Ghasidas University, PO Koni, Bilaspur 495009 (MP)

* Kumaun University, Nainital 263001 (Utt)

* North-Eastern Hill University, NEHU Campus, PO Shillong 793022 (Meg).

* St. Ravi Shankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010 (MP)

* Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003 (TN).


Q Could you please tell me where I could do a course in Hydraulics?

Purshotam Gill

A Although no special courses in hydraulics are offered in the country, the subject is dealt with in Fluid Mechanics in the third and fourth semesters of the undergraduate engineering courses (BE/BTech).

Also, temporary training courses are offered by two Bombay-based companies - Vickers Systems International and Bombay Rexroth India Limited.

However, for the first time in the country, a school aimed at imparting specific teaching in hydraulics technology to engineering graduates and technicians is being planned at Hyderabad. The curriculum designed for the Hydraulics School will include a certificate-level course in hydraulics equivalent to ITI, a diploma-level course for which general technicians will be eligible and a PG diploma course for which a degree in engineering will be the minimum requirement.


Q I am doing my B.Com. Which would be a better certification to pursue along with my graduation - MCSE or MCSD?

Shruti Garg

A While you can certainly do MCSE/MCSD simultaneously with your graduation, the general profile of those going for these certifications is people with 3-4 years of experience in the industry who are looking at improving their career prospects.

MCSD is an asset for those working on customised business solutions using Microsoft platforms like Visual Basic and Visual C ++.

On the other hand, MCSE covers the Networking aspect of computers. In a typical job scenario you will be working as a Windows NT Server Administrator. Some useful sites:,,,

You can also contact institutes like NIIT, Asset, Informatics or Karrox, which are Certified Technical Education Centres (CTEC) for these certifications.


Q I am in class 12 and am thinking of applying for hotel management courses this year. But my father says these courses are not really management courses and therefore not meant for bright students. Is this true?

Ravi Mehta

A Your father is partly right and partly wrong.

It’s true that the quality of hotel management education in India is outdated and requires a major and immediate overhaul in terms of focus and practical applicability to be on par with the Indian hospitality requirements, let alone international standards. Findings of the ‘Think Tank’ that were presented at the recent FHRAI convention also underscored this fact.

A "management" programme implies a course of study that qualifies and enables students to handle general or specialised areas of management (i.e. finance, marketing or human resources) to ensure smooth functioning of an organisation on a day-to-day basis.

Going by this definition, most of the so-called hotel management courses offered across the country are a misnomer. These courses mainly focus on the operational aspects of the industry (handling wines, laying the table in a restaurant, serving the guests, carving vegetables etc) can be learned by any other graduate while on the job.

The only exception is the kitchen department where specialised skills are necessary.

Despite the hundreds of HMIs, my advice would be to target only the top five or six most reputed ones if you can help it.

Accepted that these courses do not have much "academic" content, but then they are designed to impart ‘professional training’ for a specific industry. Where your father is somewhat wrong is about them not being meant for "bright" students. The hotel industry is a highly competitive field all over the world and calls for professional skills of a high order. So it goes without saying that a bright student would be an asset to this or any other profession.

Both degree as well as diploma-level courses are offered. In case you opt for the latter, it may be a good idea to simultaneously enrol for a Bachelor’s degree through distance learning, so that you have the necessary academic qualifications to pursue a PG degree in India or abroad like an MBA etc in the future, should you feel the need for it.

There is a lot of information available in the media and the Internet about the different courses and options you can take to fine-tune your skills.

Please send in your query preferably on a postcard along with your name, complete address and academic qualifications to:
Editor, Career Hotline, The Tribune, Sector 29, Chandigarh.


Admission deadline

Armed Forces (Army)

Feb 10 ‘02 Indian Army, Army Education Corps.

Recruitment of Havildar Education (Gr ‘X’ & ‘Y’) in

i) Science Stream

ii) Arts Stream

Elig: Gr ‘X’: BA, BEd/BSc, BEd/MA; Gr ‘Y’: BSc/BA. Age: 20-25 yrs (on 2 Sep’02). Wkg knowledge of Eng or Hindi or both & two subjs in a) BSc: i) Maths, ii) Phys, iii) Chem, iv) Bot, v) Zool, vi) Electron, vii) Comp Sc;

b) BA: i) Eng Litt, ii) Hindi Litt, iii) Urdu, iv) Histy, v) Geog, vi) Pol Sc, vii) Eco, viii) Psy, ix) Maths, x) Sociol.

Selectn: Screening followed by written exam (02 Jun ‘02) and teaching aptt tests/interview.

Details: Contact nearest Recruiting Office or See Employment News 10-16 Nov.

Feb 11 ‘02 Indian Army HQ Rtg Zone (Raj, Kolkata, Jabalpur, B’lore, Gorakhpur, Shillong, Chennai, Ambala/Danapur/L’know/Del/ J’dhar Cantt).

Religious Teachers in the Army as JCOs for

i) RRT 35 & ii) RRT 36 Courses

(Pandit, Granthi, Maulvi, Buddhist, Padre)

Elig: i): 27-34 yrs (on 2 Aug ‘02); ii): 27-34 yrs (on 28 Sep ‘02).

Selectn: Screening followed by written exam (14 Apr ‘02) & interview.

Appln F: See Employment News 10-16 Nov.

Art & Design

Dec 20 The Apparel Training & Design Centre, D-8/2, Okhla Indl. Area, Phase-I, New Delhi 110020 (M/o Text, GoI).

Ph: (011) 6814251, 6372721

1) Dip in Apparel Manufacturing Tech (1-yr)

2) Dip in Fashion Sampling/Co-ordination (1-yr)

3) Production Supervision & Quality Control (6 mths)

4) Pattern/Cutting Master Course (6 mths)

5) Machine Mechanic (4 mths)

6) Finishing/Packaging Supervisor (3 mths)

7) Sewing Machine Operator (3 mths)

8) Measurement & Quality Control (3 mths)

9) Apparel Merchandising (3 mths)

Elig: 1), 2), 3) & 6): Class XII; 4), 5), 8): Class X; 7): Class VIII; 9): Bachelor’s degree/Dip in AMT.

Selectn: Oral aptitude test/interview.

Appln F: Send Rs. 125/- by DD favouring "Apparel Training & Design Centre" payable at New Delhi to the above add. At counter: Rs 100/- (cash).


Dec 3 University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad 500046 (AP).

PG Dips (1-yr, Corresp) in:

1) Comp Sc

2) Planning & Project Mgt

3) Environmental Educn & Mgt

4) Translation Studies in Hindi

5) Human Rights

6) Television Prodn

7) Library Automation & Networking

8) Telecomm

9) Chemical Analysis & Quality Management

10) Professional Ethics

11) Cyber Laws & Legal Info Sys

12) Environmental Eco

Elig: 1), 2), 3), 4), 5), 6), 9), 11) & 12): Bachelor’s degree; 7): BLSc; 8): Bachelor’s degree with Maths/Stats/Phys; 9): Bachelor’s degree with Chem.

Selectn: Based on merit.

Appln F: Send Rs. 200/- by crossed DD favouring "The Finance Officer, University of Hyderabad" drawn on SBI, HU Campus Br (Code 5961)/Andhra Bank, Nampally Br (Code 378)/any scheduled bank payable at Hyderabad to the Assistant Registrar (DE), at the above add.


Jan 10 ‘02 The Registrar, FORE School of Management, "Adhyatam Kendra", B18, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi 110016.

Ph: (011) 6524013


AIMS Test for Management Admissions 2002

(for admission to 50 institutes all over India)

Elig: Bachelor’s degree.

Test: 10 Feb ‘02 at 19 centres incldg B’lore, Ch’garh, Del.

Appln F: Send Rs 600/- by DD favouring "Association of Indian Management Schools", payable at Hyderabad to the above add.


Nov 20 Central Statistical Organisation, Room No 418, Sardar Patel Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi 110001.


Doctoral & Post-Doctoral Fellowships in Applied/Official Statistics (2-yr)

Elig: Indian Nationals 26-54 yrs of age with 5 yrs relevant wk ex in Govt. Doctoral: Master’s degree. Post-Doctoral: PhD.

Appln F: See website.

Unless otherwise specified, the dates mentioned above are deadlines for receipt of completed application forms.

CARING (Career Information & Guidance), New Delhi
[email protected]