|EDUCATION TRIBUNE||Tuesday, October 15, 2002, Chandigarh, India|
for school phobia
tools at home
Learning tools for toddlers can be easy and inexpensive to make while proving to be invaluable in helping your child to learn. The following list includes activities that are geared for ages 18 months to 3 years and are not gender-specific. These tools are most effective when used under adult supervision and guidance.
Positive reinforcement helps encourage the learning process. Tell the child he or she is doing well when they accomplish the task. Be sure to praise correct responses without criticising incorrect ones.
Also, laminating paper-cut-outs and cards will help make these more durable. Placing stars or stickers on a child’s left hand and/or left shoe will help him/her to identify left from right. Children will eventually figure the left and right sides out on their own and not need these memory boosters.
Periodically, you can ask the child "Where is your left shoe" or "Can you hold up your left hand" to test him or her.
If the child hesitates to answer, remind him to look for the star or sticker that you put on the left hand and left shoe and repeat question again. This time the child most likely will answer correctly.
Family photo albums are a great way for your child to learn the names of everyone in the family. Take an ordinary flip album with plastic sleeves for holding photos and insert your photos. Most albums come in 3 X 5 or 4 X 6 sizes, which are easy for small hands to hold and look through. Be sure to include recent photos of parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, caregivers, neighbours and anyone else the child sees regularly.
You can update or change photos as needed. It is best to use photos of individuals as opposed to group photos so it is easier for the child to identify one face with a name. Page through the book with your child and name each person several times then go back through the book and ask the child "who is that?" Be sure to reinforce correct answers. With practice the child will soon be able to recognise and name friends and family members when they visit.
Sandpaper letters and numbers are a great way to teach your child to write. Cut out numbers and letters from sandpaper and attach these to poster board or other sturdy backing. You can even spell your child’s name and attack it to a toy box, wagon, or highchair tray. Help your child trace the letters or numbers with his or her finger. Repeat the name of the letter or number as you do this and ask the child to repeat it as well. You can also lay the letters out to spell short words like cat, dog and boat and ask the child to tell you how to spell the word and what it is.
Putting letters, numbers, animals, daily objects, people, food, colours, shapes or other things onto small cards and having these laminated is an easy way to make your own flash cards. Be sure to write the name of the picture on the back of the card. Show the card to the child and ask him or her to identify it after you have named all of these first.
Memory games can be made using sets of home-made flash cards. Choose about six pairs of objects for each game and lay these out in a block. Ask the child to turn over one card at a time and then search for the matching card. No more than two cards should be face up at a time and be sure to cover the name on the back of the cards before playing.
When the child finds a matching pair take those out and put them off to the side until all matched pairs have been located.
Number cups can be made using frosting cans with specific numbers written on or attached to the cans. Fill the cans with that specific number of objects inside. Toys, blocks, crayons, pictures, balls, truck, cotton balls, dishcloth or washcloth, socks, spoon, felt cut-outs of different shapes (square, triangle, circle, star) may be good things to be made, using frosting cans with coloured labels.
Objects of just that colour should be placed inside. Fill the cans with that specific number of objects inside. Toys, blocks, crayons, pictures, balls, truck, cotton balls, dishcloth or washcloth, socks, spoon, felt cut outs of different shapes (square, triangle, circle, star) may be good things to fill the cans with.
Start with primary colours like red, green, and yellow. Then you may want to add black, white, brown, purple, orange, and pink.
Homemade puzzles can be made from enlarging family photos or other familiar pictures. Print these on heavy paper or attach them to cardboard. Cut in no more than 12 pieces (fewer pieces for younger children). Show the child a picture of what the completed puzzle will look like and then ask him or her to help you arrange the pieces to form the picture.
Match games can be made by creating a board on one page or sheet of poster board and cutting out objects to lay on top of it with another page. Some possible ideas for game boards are food, toys, people, shapes etc. Have the child name each object placed on the board.
You can make a clock face on a paper plate and attach paper hands with a clasp. You can start out with times like 1 o’clock and 2 o’clock before moving to half and quarter hours. By being able to position the hands you can teach your child a variety of times. You may also want to try lunchtime, naptime and bedtime.
Draw basic body/face outline then cut out eyes, ears, nose, mouth, arms and legs for the child to place in appropriate spots. Ask the child to name each part and place it in the proper location. You can expand on this later by adding clothing pieces like a hat, coat, shirt, pants, mittens etc.
Cut-out or print computer pictures of a
knife, fork, spoon, plate, napkin, cup, plate and bowl. Attach the
pictures to a sturdy paper or other backing material. Give the child a
place mat and ask him/her to help you set the table using the cutouts,
and enjoy an imaginary supper!
for school phobia
There can be few children who have not felt reluctant to go to school. It may be fear of a new school or worries about teachers, meals, bullies, or games. Such anxieties are normal and most children manage to come to terms with their fears and gain confidence from coping successfully with these.
In contrast, older children and teenagers may deliberately play truant. This wilful avoidance of school may often occur when the child sees little point in going to school, seeing it as irrelevant preparation for a life of unemployment.
School phobia, occurs when the child cannot be persuaded to attend school at all. The child may either complaints of illness, simply express his fear of school.
Non-attendance at schools tend to occur in a child with anxiety about separation from the parents.
(It may be triggered by a disturbing event at school or home), in case of abuse, as part of a rebellious behaviour or in a child attempting to cope with a severe long-term family problem, such as mental illness in a parent or marital violence.
The parents are responsible for giving the child the impression that school is a place to be dreaded. There is usually a far-too-close tie between the child and the parents. The mother is overindulgent, over-protective, and domineering and the father is ineffective and disinterested.
The cause of behavioural aberration may lie in the school. A child from a family of low socio-economic stratum, if placed in an expensive school, patronised by children from richer homes, may find it hard to bridge the cultural hiatus and develop a complex.
He may feel frustrated and emotionally depressed. He may, in fact, start hating his parents for their inability to provide him with a similar environment. Maladjustment may occur with peers or teachers because of his culturally different background.
A sensitive child may develop emotional blocks in learning when afraid of the teacher or on being unduly hurried.
Failure in work has a bad effect on a child’s progress. Success leads to success and failure to a further lowering in the standards achieved.
Poor concentration is due to low intelligence — or an intelligent quotient below that of other members of the class. Poor concentration may be due to boredom, dislike, of the work, lack of motivation in teaching or dislike of the teacher.
But it may also be due to the child
being gifted, finding the work too easy or to his having interests and
aptitudes outside the school curriculum. It may be due to day-dreaming,
insecurity or finding the work too easy and not stimulating.
Art & Design
Nov 30: National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad 380007. www.nid.edu
Graduate Dip Prog in Design (GDPD; 4-yr) (Indl, Exhbtn, Comm, Textile & Apparel Des) vPG Dip in Design (PGDPD; 2˝-yr) (Comm Des; Indl Des; Textile & Apparel Des)
Selectn: Admission Test (GDPD: 12 Jan, PGDPD: 11 Jan), Workshop & Interview.
Appln F: Send Rs. 750/- by DD favouring "NID" payable at Al 'bad with self-add, stamped (Rs. 15/-) env (25 x 12 cms) to above add. Superscribe "Admissions" on env or download from website. Also at designated Bank of India Branches: Rs. 780/- (cash) till 22 Nov.
Nov 12: Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, B-21, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi-110016. www.iift.edu
MBA (Intnl Bus).
Elig: UG Deg (50%).
Selectn: Written test (12 Jan) at 18 centres, GD & Interview.
Appln F: Send Rs 250/- by DD favouring "Indian Institute of Foreign Trade" payable at Delhi with 2 self-add stickers to above add.
Dec 31: NIILM Centre for Management Studies, B-II/66, MCIE, Mathura Rd, New Delhi 110044. firstname.lastname@example.org
PG Prog in Business Management
Elig: Bachelor's Deg (50%), CAT Scores.
Appln F: Send Rs 650/- by DD favouring "NIILM" payable at Delhi, to above add.
National Medical College (NMC*), PB No. 78, Birgunj, Nepal. www.nmcbir.edu.np
Elig: Cl 12 (with PCBE; PCB 50%).
Appln F: Send Rs 500/- favouring "National Medical College, Birganj, Nepal" payable at Kolkata to above add.
* NMC is affl to Tribhuvan Univ of Nepal. Degree recog by MCI.
Royal College of General Practitioners of UK & Apollo Hospital Educational & Research Foundation, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad. email@example.com
(1) Fellowship in Emergency Med (1-yr)
(2) Fellowship in Family Med (1-yr)
(3) Fellowship in Critical Care (for Doctors/Nurses)
(4) Dip in Family Med (1-yr)
(5) Emergency Paramedics (2˝-yrs)
Elig: For 1 & 2: MBBS. For 3: MBBS, Reg MCI/RNRM; BSc (Nursing). For 4: MBBS with MCI Regn. For 5: UG Deg.
Appln F: Send Rs 300/- by DD favouring "Apollo Hospitals Educational & Research Foundation" payable at Hy 'bad to Dr. J Stanley, D/o Emergency Med, at above add.
Oct 28: Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks, Old CGO Building, Maharshi Karve Rd, Mumbai 400020.
Examiner of Patents & Design (165 posts)
Elig: PG (Phy/Chem/Bio-Chem/Micro-Biol/Mol Biol/Bio-Tech/Bio-Phy)/ BE/ BTech. Res ex, Deg in Law, knowledge of foreign lang pfd. Age: 35 yrs (on 1 Jan '02)
Details & Appln F: Employment News (28 Sep-4 Oct).
Motilal Nehru School of Sports, Rai-131029, Distt Sonipat (Har)
Nov 6: (1) Cl IV (Main entry)
(2) Outstanding Sportspersons Category
(3) Cl V-IX (Lateral Entry)
(Appln Deadline 10 Apr '03 for Cl 11 only)
Elig: Age: 8-10 yrs. For 2: Jr/Sr National Games participant OR I/II/III position holder in State Level Competition. Age: 8-18 yrs.
Selectn: Merit in various admission tests. For 3: Lateral Entry Exam.
Written tests For 1: Cl IV 19 Jan.; For 2:& 3: 2 Feb.
For Cl XI: 1 May.
Appln F: Send Rs 150/- by DD OR IPO favouring "Principal & Director, MNSS, Rai" (payable at SBI (Code 6838 OR IPO payable at PO PS Rai) to above add.
Oct 18: Directorate of Training & Technical Education, Muni Maya Ram Marg, Pitam Pura, Delhi 110088
Trade Test conducted by National/State Council for Vocational Training for Pvt Candidates.
Elig: Working (FT) in establishments in NCT, Delhi, under Apprenticeship Trg Sch/Small estab and shops covered under Factory Act or regd with any Govt/Local authority, with min 5-yr FT indl/teaching ex in the relevant trade and min prescribed qual.
Selectn: Trade Test
Appln F: Room No. 207 (A), Examination Branch at above add.
Oct 16 MM Institute of Computer Technology & Business Management (Affl to KU), Mullana (Ambala)
Ph: 0171-3274777, 3274778
Bachelor of Hotel Mgt & Catering Tech
Oct 16 M/o HRD, (D/o Sec & Hr Educn), ES.5 Section, A.1/W. 3, Curzon Rd Barracks, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110001
NORAD Fellowships (Norwegian Govt Scholarships)
MSc (Dev & Resource Eco; Hydropower Dev; Petroleum Engg/Petroleum Geo Sc)
Oct 16 Institute of Rail Transport, Room No 17, Rail Bhavan, Raisina Rd, New Delhi 110001
Ph: 3303236, 3303924. www.irt-india.com
Dip in Transport & Mgt (1-yr)
Oct 18 Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti, (M/o HRD) IG Stadium, IP Estate, New Delhi 110002
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Selectn Test 2003 (Class VI)
Oct 21 Central Airmen Selectn Board, PB No. 11807,
New Delhi 110010. www.careerairforce.nic.in
Recruitment of Airmen in Technical
Oct 21 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012
Oct 22 Panjab University, Chandigarh
PhD (F/o Arts; Lang; Educn; Des & Fine Arts; Sc)