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PERSPECTIVE

ON RECORD
No political party can touch farm subsidies: Ramesh
by Gaurav Choudhury
T
HE MIT-educated erudite Jairam Ramesh is back in the thick of things. A member of the United Progressive Alliance government’s National Advisory Council, Mr Ramesh was a key member of the Congress think-tank during the Lok Sabha polls.

Let’s have a United States of India
by Abdul Ghani Goni
T
HE present complex political and economic situation in the country demands that we must think of her future taking into consideration urges and the aspirations of the people.



EARLIER ARTICLES

THE TRIBUNE SPECIALS
50 YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE

TERCENTENARY CELEBRATIONS
OPED

PROFILE
He set new standards in the judiciary
by Harihar Swarup
J
USTICE M.N. Venkatachaliah has been perhaps one of the tallest persons from the higher echelon of judiciary and seeing him receiving Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award, last week at the investiture ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhavan conjured up many images of this remarkable judge.

REFLECTIONS
Realising the power of ‘I’
by Kiran Bedi
L
AST few days I had the opportunity to be in Singapore to work with 70 personalities associated with the United Nations in senior positions. They came from over 25 countries, with military, police and civil administration backgrounds. In this assembly were also some outstanding faculty, experienced and knowledgeable.

KASHMIR DIARY
Militant groups determined to play the pro-Pakistani tune
by David Devadas
O
FFICIAL interactions pertaining to Kashmir are too often not what they seem to be. Take Pakistan Foreign Secretary Riaz Khokkar’s interactions in New Delhi last weekend. We were told that he had discussed with his Indian counterpart a solution to the Kashmir imbroglio, but all that the two sides did was to issue a joint statement.

DIVERSITIES — DELHI LETTER
Renuka spells out her plans on tourism
by Humra Quraishi
D
ELHI-ITES need an excuse to party. One was hosted mid week at the IIC by an elite group for Tourism Minister Renuka Chaudhary. There seems something extremely positive about her. She was either smiling or laughing heartily.

  • German’s passion for writing
  • A special guest coming
  • Focus on refugees

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ON RECORD
No political party can touch farm subsidies: Ramesh
by Gaurav Choudhury


Jairam Ramesh
Jairam Ramesh

THE MIT-educated erudite Jairam Ramesh is back in the thick of things. A member of the United Progressive Alliance government’s National Advisory Council, Mr Ramesh was a key member of the Congress think-tank during the Lok Sabha polls. Elected to the Rajya Sabha from Andhra Pradesh, he was believed to be the man behind the Congress campaign “Congress ka haath, Aam admi ke saath”. An alumnus of IIT Mumbai, his multi-disciplinary professional expertise may come in handy in the current political and economic environment. In an exclusive interview to The Sunday Tribune, he said agriculture and education will be the centrepiece of the Union Budget.

Excerpts:

Q: Even after over 50 years of independent economic policy making, the terms of trade in the Indian economy continues to remain loaded against the rural economy. Why?

A: It is not true to say that the terms of trade are not in favour of agriculture. If you look at the last decade, there has been a movement of terms of trade in favour of agriculture. Unfortunately, what has happened is that the movement of terms of trade in favour of agriculture has largely been triggered by increase in procurement prices and less by productivity enhancement. That is one limitation of the movement of this terms of trade.

Moreover, one can have terms of trade in favour of agriculture, but that does not ensure profitability of agriculture. This is a separate concept altogether. Terms of trade is a good thing for economists, but for the farmer it is the profitability that really matters. Because of the demographic pressure, the shrinking of the average size of the farm, it is simply not possible to envision farming as a profitable operation in many parts of the country. Of course, there are irrigated areas where farming still continues to be profitable. But our inability to move away from the rice-wheat agriculture has meant that our incentives today are geared entirely towards cereal agriculture.

Q: What is an important determinant of rural prosperity?

A: The single most important determinant of rural prosperity is irrigation. But sadly, less than 40 per cent of India’s cultivated land is irrigated so far. If we are able to expand irrigation at the rate of say two million hectares a year, then we would be accelerating rural prosperity. In the last decade and a half, annual addition to irrigation has come down to just about half-a-million hectares a year.

Q: If one looks at the Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in agriculture, the private sector has made only a minimal contribution. What needs to be done?

A: Capital formation in agriculture, roughly two-thirds is public investment and about one-third is private investment. There are some problems in this definition of public investment in agriculture. The way we define public investment implies that 90 per cent of investment goes into irrigation. So if investment in irrigation is going down, the way we define gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) will also go down. So we need to have an overall definition of public investment that is just not restricted to irrigation. Nonetheless, irrigation is still the most important determinant of rural prosperity. This is the most important goal that the government must have in the future.

Q: Subsidies are edging back to the pre-reforms level to about 1.62 per cent of GDP. How can this trend be arrested?

A: Public expenditure in agriculture in India is largely in the form of subsidies and not in the form of investment. If one looks at the rate of growth of subsidies, it is about three-to-four times the rate of growth of investment. What we need is a shift in public expenditure out of subsidies to investment. Subsidies are required in drought-prone areas and for small and marginal farmers in ecologically sensitive zones. But blanket, open-ended subsidies draw money away from investment. The reason why public investment has gone down is because most of the public expenditure has gone in the form of subsidies.

Q: What model of macro restructuring would you suggest to address this problem?

A: Subsidies benefit richer farmers and richer states. Moreover, this is a political issue. No political party can touch the issue of farm subsidies and hope to survive for long. Therefore, this transition from subsidy to investment is going to take some time.

Q: You have said that much of the profitability in agriculture in the last decade has mainly come from procurement prices. But in the given context, is there an alternative to the existing system of state intervention in markets through procurement prices?

A: Procurement prices benefit states such as Punjab, Haryana and western UP. But even though we have a system of procurement price, large parts of India — Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, eastern UP, Orissa — the farmers do not get the procurement price. The procurement machinery is not there. There are large parts of India where public investment in agriculture in terms of better infrastructure, especially in eastern India, is strongly required.

Q: Are you happy with the pace of infrastructure development in India?

A: We should be adding about 6,000 to 7,000 MW of power every year. Presently, we are adding less than 4,000 MW. This is a very big shortfall in the power scenario in India. And instead of having transmission and distribution losses between 10 and 15 per cent, we are having T&D losses of more than 30 per cent. I think in the last few years, the road programme has picked up. The National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) and the rural roads programme has picked up.

Q: A new deadline has now been set for the introduction of VAT. But fears have also been expressed about the possibility of splitting the country in terms of consuming and producing states. What are your comments?

A: VAT is absolutely essential for the competitiveness of the Indian industry. There are no drawbacks. The reason why VAT was not introduced was because of Mr Madan Lal Khurana as Delhi tends to lose from VAT. About Rs 2,500 crore of sales tax evasion will come into the books. Traders will not be able to evade tax. So I think this fear of VAT dividing the country in terms of producing and consuming states is a bogus fear. The only fear is that those who are evading taxes will now have to pay taxes. There is no getting out of VAT and on April 1, 2005, it has to happen.

Q: What kind of a budget can we expect?

A: It is going to be a tough budget. We have tremendous demands for public expenditure — from agriculture, education, health. People want more expenditure, but they don’t want to pay more taxes. There is a peculiar fiscal sociology that we have in this country. In my view it will be a progressive budget, it will be a budget that will have agriculture and education as the centrepiece. After all, the budget is the derivative of the common minimum programme (CMP) and therefore the budget cannot take a different direction from the CMP. I think it will be an “Aam Aadmi” Budget.
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Let’s have a United States of India
by Abdul Ghani Goni

THE present complex political and economic situation in the country demands that we must think of her future taking into consideration urges and the aspirations of the people. We must admit that the people in various states have different religions, cultures, habits and living standards. Communal approach on politics has further added to the miseries instead of the well being and improving the standards of the people.

Now in the election to Parliament, communal politics has been rejected. Unity in this diversity is to be maintained as has been maintained in the US and the USSR although there are multilingual ethnic races with a wide variety of cultures.

In the US the white immigrants pushed the original inhabitants called the Red Indians to the extreme south restricting them to the reserved areas. Similarly in India also the Aryans pushed the Dravidians to the South. The Mughals brought a new civilisation and finally the English brought and contributed a very different culture.

Autocratic rulers somehow managed to set one section against the other following the policy of divide and rule, but the struggle against the exploitation continued. In recent past the communal card was played, disturbing the communal harmony and respect and love for one another.

They ruled for some time, but in the last parliamentary election communal approach have been rejected outright. A new leadership has emerged and relief is being felt. The present leadership is strong enough to control the situation. Recent parliamentary elections have proved that a silent revolution is taking place that may demand a complete change from the past. The leadership seems to have resolved to end the conflict between India and Pakistan, Kashmir and Eastern States. I say yes, but these may not be the only problems. Practically all the states have been grumbling and complaining about the attitude of the Centre and demanding some sort of freedom to manage their own affairs with minimum interference from the Centre.

Political picture of the country has been changing and the states have contributed to the present political climate resulting in executive and administrative change at the top. There had even been serious confrontation between the states and the Centre.

The whole nation seems to want a change from the past and the need of the hour is to take this exercise very seriously. The nation has supported the secular forces and the secular character envisaged in our Constitution. India is great and its democratic character is really the greatest in the eyes of the world powers.

Time has come when the distinguished leaders, eminent jurists and intellectuals should sit together and discuss a new system and structure keeping in view the new aspirations and urges of the common man. Our parliamentary system based on the British parliamentary system seems to be outdated.

Great Britain is a small and a compact country. Ours is a country of many religions, multi-lingual customs, traditions and different ethnic backgrounds.

In order to consolidate all these forces, our parliamentarians have to play a major role so that every citizen of the country does not remain only “deshwasi” but becomes a “deshpremi.”

Why not to study the USSR and the US constitutions? Even the USSR has been compelled to change the whole system to satisfy the nation with liberal and progressive ideas and aspirations. May be we too may require drastic change in our Constitution. Why not to have a federal type of government giving all the states full legal, executive and administrative power to manage their own affair — even to select their own Governors, mayors and various heads of other autonomous bodies through a direct vote.

A federal structure at the Centre may be a factor in diversity. We should study seriously the Russian Constitution where every state has its own separate Constitution. Good provisions from the American Constitution can probably be considered favourably. The comparative study of the constitutions of other countries may help us a lot to come to concrete ideas. Relations between the Centre and the states can be strengthened with the sense of belonging to each other with equal opportunities to all, rather than tying them together with force or showing superiority of a few over all others.

There is a need to have a fresh look into the changes required in the basic principles, directive principles, Fundamental Rights and election laws immediately. People are anxious to see the shape of things to come after the change of power at the Centre. We want immediate drastic change in the socio-political system of the country. Deep sense of participation can be only developed when we declare sincerely that the country belongs to all and that there are equal opportunities and a say in shaping the course to strengthen the country.

Let us elect directly our own Governors, Mayors and all the heads of the government or semi-government agencies.

States can be re-organised to the benefit of the vast population of the country. The world order is changing so fast that we cannot afford to isolate ourselves with the events around.

Let us also move towards the new directions and give ourselves a radically amended Constitution.

Let us have a strong new United States of India based on equality, justice and devotion, a sense of belonging to one another. We are anxiously waiting for the new shape of things from the new leadership at the Centre.

May God bless all to build a strong and prosperous New India sending a message of love, peace and prosperity to the whole world.

The writer is a former Speaker of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
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PROFILE
He set new standards in the judiciary
by Harihar Swarup

JUSTICE M.N. Venkatachaliah has been perhaps one of the tallest persons from the higher echelon of judiciary and seeing him receiving Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award, last week at the investiture ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhavan conjured up many images of this remarkable judge. The nation had watched him preside over the highest court of the land — he gave an institutional character to the Supreme Court — saw him function as Chairman of the Human Rights Commission and, remaining above controversy as Chairman of the Constitution Review Commission, considered the most tricky assignment.

Even though this Commission drew flak, Justice Venkatachaliah remained above board. He steadfastly maintained that the task of the Commission was not to rewrite the Constitution but to review its working. He stuck to his stand in his report that the Commission was intended only as an academic exercise to suggest amendments to the Constitution and lay down certain legal and executive measures to strengthen constitutional provisions. The Commission made no claims to legitimacy and left it to Parliament and the states to decide which of its 249 recommendations need to be implemented.

Having steered clear of controversial issues as Chairman of the Constitution Review Commission, Justice Venkatachaliah decided to lead a quiet life, except involvement with a few socio-cultural organisations, in his home town, Bangalore. When the government chose to honour him with Padma Vibhushan, he was looking for nothing; the award did not excite him. It was, however, a solemn moment for the judiciary as well as for those who had known him as President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam conferred the honour on him.

Justice Venkatachaliah has, after all, set new standards in the judiciary. He has not only first-hand experience of dispensing justice but also of dealing with his “brother judges”. Even during his tenure as the Chief Justice, he had expressed his dismay about the tendency of some of the members of the Bench to “socialise” in circles which may lie beyond judicious discretion. He was more forthcoming when he headed the Constitution Review Commission on the question of indiscipline among the judges and even suggested ways of curbing it. Indian judiciary has produced men of high integrity, learning and ability but “there have been exceptions too and in the recent years more such exceptions are coming to light”.

Justice Venkatachaliah took up the Chairmanship of the Constitution Review Commission rather reluctantly. The Commission kicked up controversy since its inception and drew criticism from both the political parties as well as civil society. It was contended that the Commission lacked legitimacy because it neither had Parliament’s sanction nor political consensus. Political parties attributed “ulterior motive” to the setting up of the Commission. Even the then President K.R. Narayanan echoed some of these fears when he observed: “Today, when there is so much talk about revising the Constitution or even writing a new Constitution, we have to consider whether it is the Constitution that has failed us or whether it is we who have failed the Constitution”.

Justice Venkatachaliah was Chairman of National Human Rights Commission for three years (1996-99). He will always be remembered for giving a new direction to human rights. He suggested that human rights should be the core of any development programme in order to achieve balanced development. He identified maternal anemia, education for the girl child and poverty as the most critical developmental issues in the Indian context.

When Babri Masjid was demolished over a decade ago, he was the CJI. It was believed at that time that only two persons could have stopped the destruction — Prime Minister P.V. Narsasimha Rao and Justice Venkatachaliah who headed the Supreme Court Bench before whom the matter was pending. It was said in judicial circles that he was perhaps too good to have accepted an undertaking from the then UP Chief Minister Kalyan Singh which he (the CM) never intended to keep. “Brother judges” and highly placed judicial officers say Justice Venkatachaliah’s unassuming behaviour and erudition evoke instant respect.
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REFLECTIONS
Realising the power of ‘I’
by Kiran Bedi

LAST few days I had the opportunity to be in Singapore to work with 70 personalities associated with the United Nations in senior positions. They came from over 25 countries, with military, police and civil administration backgrounds. In this assembly were also some outstanding faculty, experienced and knowledgeable.

The expectation from this congregation was not only to listen but also to contribute individually as well as collectively on issues that the leadership in the UN must be prepared either before or immediately on assumption of responsibilities. All of them were tasked to design a standard training module for the senior positions, which included the heads of missions in the peace-keeping operations. Which means a proper package of training for the absolute top politicians or diplomats and individuals that are immune to any formal training!

I am sharing here some good lessons from this brain-storming exercise. For the issues in leadership were universal in application. They may, however, be personally and professionally contingent on certain perceptions and circumstances. For instance in one of the sessions we delved on the concept of the alphabet ‘I’. We realised that it is the only one which is written in capital ‘I’ whenever it is to be used by itself. It is written in small letter only when it is an integral part of another word.

The point being driven here was the need to understand the power of ‘I’. For I is symbolically at the centre of all. It’s how I perform: how I think: how I perceive: how I conduct; how I deal with others: how I delegate: how ‘I ‘manage: to make myself either an asset or a liability. Whether ‘I’ am at the centre of problems? Or am I the medium of possible solutions? Expanding this concept three more traits were identified which begin with the letter ‘I’ and if properly practised make for better leaders. And understanding of these sets apart one leader from another.

The first I represents Integrity. That is I as a leader conducts her/himself in a manner by which ‘I’ is a role model for all those ‘I’ is responsible for guiding and supervising. By being so ‘I’ helps build trust and confidence in others to enable them realise their potential. If ‘I’ am expecting honesty then ‘I’ must begin with myself first. This trait draws people out and makes them on their own volition, follow the leader. Sound leadership leads to influencing others. And our history has any number of such models: Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekananda and Shaheed Bhagat Singh, who lived and dedicated all of their self through the power of ‘I’.

The second ‘I’ is information. In other words as a leader ‘I’ am responsible for sharing information. This is possible by only such persons who believe in others’ right to information and are not afraid to share. This ‘I’ is internally secure. It is this class of leaders who groom others and leave behind legacies...

The third ‘I’ may stand for initiative. This will be the direct result of information sharing, grooming, delegation, motivation, support and encouragement provided by the leader. S/he will allow the flow of better ideas and reward and recognise such like members of the team.

Understanding the power of the ‘I’ makes a person aware of one’s own self and equally the responsibilities, which come with leadership. These are the people who are not greeted out of fear but from genuine respect they earn without asking for. For they live and deliver through the power of ‘I’.
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KASHMIR DIARY
Militant groups determined to play the pro-Pakistani tune
by David Devadas

OFFICIAL interactions pertaining to Kashmir are too often not what they seem to be. Take Pakistan Foreign Secretary Riaz Khokkar’s interactions in New Delhi last weekend. We were told that he had discussed with his Indian counterpart a solution to the Kashmir imbroglio, but all that the two sides did was to issue a joint statement. The basis for that statement, and the substantive progress towards an agreement, was actually the business of the special nominees of the two heads of government (or head of state in Pakistan's case). National Security Adviser J.N. Dixit — having taken over the responsibility from his predecessor, Brajesh Mishra — has been representing India at those substantive albeit secret negotiations.

More eyebrows have been raised in parts of Srinagar over the letter Mr Khokkar brought from his President for the young Mirwaiz Umar. In it, Musharraf expressed his condolences over the recent assassination of Umar’s uncle.

Umar must surely have had mixed feelings about the letter. Several of his supporters believe that the murder, and the attempt on Umar’s life around the same time, was the handiwork of pro-Pakistan militants. Yet, such is the distance between what is and what appears to be in matters pertaining to Kashmir that the Pakistani establishment not only condoled the death, Khokkar invited Umar to visit Pakistan.

As if to at least partially throw light on his real intent, Khokkar stated publicly that Pakistan recognises the rival faction of the Hurriyat Conference — the one led by Ali Shah Geelani. That is a change from a few months ago, when the Pakistani establishment had sought to play even-handed between the two factions. So far has the pendulum swung that some of the Mirwaiz’ backers now believe that Umar’s assassination is on the agenda of the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Tayyaba. This was revealed during police investigations following the decimation recently of some of the Lashkar's senior commanders, and the Mirwaiz’ backers are taking the threat seriously.

The letter from President Musharraf reminded some of the Mirwaiz’ backers of the letter Umar’s father had written a little more than 14 years ago. In it, the then Mirwaiz Farooq had poured out his anguish over the violence being perpetrated in the name of Islam and had asked what explanation he could give on Judgement Day. Mirwaiz Farooq was assassinated in his Srinagar home about a fortnight after it was dispatched. Ironically, that letter, copies of it separately addressed to Benazir Bhutto and then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, was delivered to Khokkar, who was at that time Pakistan's Ambassador in New Delhi.

Equally ironically, Chief Minister Mufti Mohammed Sayeed was then the Union Home Minister and several of the late Mirwaiz’ friends hold that Mirwaiz Farooq’s telephone calls to him during that period regarding security did not elicit an adequate response. No doubt, the current Chief Minister is concerned about the recent police revelations about Umar being on a hit list. The political cost of failing to protect two successive Mirwaiz’ would be exceptionally high.

Not only Mirwaiz Umar, the names of his senior colleagues in the faction of the Hurriyat Conference chaired by Maulana Abbas Ansari also appear on the hit list the police says it has discovered. If that is so, the pendulum has swung rather decisively since the time a few months ago when Pakistan tried to woo both sides. Although the leaders of both factions spoke publicly after meeting Khokkar of efforts at unification, the truth is that Pakistan has made its choice. And the militant groups rooted in Pakistan are determined to act in accordance with that choice.

Shabir Shah, who was reviled as an Indian agent during the late 1990s, appears to have become a favourite of Pakistan again. A group called Al Madina, an offshoot apparently of the pan-Islamic Jaish-e-Mohammed (now banned in Pakistan), recently sang Shah’s praises.

Shah’s priorities seem to have changed since he was left out of the talks between the Ansari-led faction and the then Deputy Prime Minister, L.K. Advani. Yasin Malik is another object of irony. Once despised by Pakistan, since he is a votary of Kashmir’s independence from both India and Pakistan, he is now bracketed along with Geelani and Shah among Pakistan’s favourites. On the other hand, both the squabbling sons of Abdul Ghani Lone, who was once counted in the same breath as Geelani, are said to be on the militant hit list.
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DIVERSITIES — DELHI LETTER
Renuka spells out her plans on tourism
by Humra Quraishi

DELHI-ITES need an excuse to party. One was hosted mid week at the IIC by an elite group for Tourism Minister Renuka Chaudhary. There seems something extremely positive about her. She was either smiling or laughing heartily. In between, she was talking about the Centre’s tourism plans with focus on historical monuments, traditional concept of shopping after dusk, revival of lesser known regional places of interest.

Then, the Padma awards triggered off receptions in honour of the awardees. I attended one, hosted by Vijaylakshmi for her mother Bharati Shivaji, the well known Mohiniyattam dancer and who was bestowed with a Padma Shri.

She was looking radiant. Dressed in the traditional “mundu” (half sari) with a string of jasmine flowers tucked in her hair and with just about no make-up, she looked far more attractive that any of the youngsters present.

Delhi’s well known dancers were present — Raja and Kaushalya Reddy, Guru Singhajit and Charu Mathur, Prerana Shrimali, Sonal Mansingh, Swapna Sundari, Ranjana Gauhar, Uma Sharma. Moving towards the lawns, the food was a great mix — traditional Kerala cuisine with a mix from the North.

German’s passion for writing

New Delhi-based German writer Roswitha Joshi is not from an ordinary fabric. Growing up in the post-war Germany, she married an Indian and that’s what got her here, over three decades back.

Giving up a full-time job in the German Embassy here she took to full-time writing. One book followed the next and though the second book was published around Spring, this week the Gymkhana Club invited Roswitha to talk about her passion for writing.

It’s best to quote her speech that evening so that her courage could make us think along the positive strain: “I was born in a Germany which lay in ruins... Pride did not allow to show poverty. Food was scarce. The flesh of formerly fat people hanging in pleads. The peel of an apple a special treat...My father was an army officer highly decorated for bravery at the front. He showed me a box full of medals. For what they represented he had sacrificed several limbs and almost his life... With the loss of the war the medals had lost their shine. What once stood for honour now stood for shame. He was the sole survivor of his company.

“And, yet, not too many years later Germany rose like Phoenix from the ashes... I drew three conclusions from this. One that war brings incredible misery. The second that the destiny of people and nations rise and fall, fall and rise and that the individual has no or a very limited influence on it. And the third that one should enjoy life and the bigger and smaller pleasures it offers as much and as well as one can.”

A special guest coming

Dr Javid Iqbal would hold a meet-cum-discussion on his book “Islam and Pakistan’s Identity” (Lahore: Iqbal Academy, Pakistan). On July 7, there would be a discussion on this book at the IIC by Prof Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Prof Imtiaz Ahmad and Prof V.N. Datta.

Dr Javid Iqbal is the son of the poet-philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal. He had earlier written a biography of his father.

Focus on refugees

On World Refugee Day, one heard about the inter-state migrations and together with it the refugee problem in the North-East and in South Asia.

And now there is going to be a detailed talk on this aspect on July 13. Chairing the talk will be UNHRC’s Mission Chief Lennart Kotsalainen.
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