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Tomorrow is World Population Day
Girl or boy small family is a joy
Dr Anil Dheer

Ludhiana, July 9
On the occasion of World Population Day on July 11, here are some family planning methods: Condoms: These are easy to use and can prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including AIDS, and pregnancy. When condoms are needed to prevent STIs/AIDS, many couples use them along with other family planning methods.

Vasectomy: It is a permanent method for men who don't want more children. One should think carefully before deciding. There is no effect on sexual ability. It is a safe and convenient surgery which is performed in a few minutes at a clinic or health centre. There are no long-term side- effects. There is brief discomfort after the operation but is very effective.

Sterilisation: It is a permanent method for women who are sure that they do not want more children. It is very effective.

Sato simple surgery: It is usually done under local anaesthesia. Serious complications of the procedure are rare but there is brief discomfort. There is no known long-term side-effect.

Combined oral contraceptives: These can be used by women of any age, whether or not they have children. These are effective and reversible. These should be taken every day for best protection. Serious side-effects are rare. Especially in the first few months, some users experience side-effects like upset stomach, bleeding, weight gain and mild headache. These can help prevent certain cancers, anaemia, and irregular periods, besides other medical conditions. These can be used as an emergency method after unprotected sex.

Progestin-only oral contraceptives: These are a good choice for nursing mothers who want pills, beginning at six weeks after childbirth. These are very effective during breast feeding. If used when not breast feeding, bleeding changes are normal, especially spotting.

Vaginal methods: These include spermicide, diaphragm and cap. A woman can use these conveniently. These must be placed inside the vagina each time before sex. These can be effective when used correctly and may help prevent STIs. Bladder infection may occur.

DMPA injectable contraceptive: It is very effective and safe. One injection has to be taken every three months. Bleeding changes are normal. There could be light bleeding and after a year, there are often no periods. Some weight gain or mild headache may occur. Can be used by women of any age, whether or not they have children. Women who stop using DMPA take an average of four months longer than usual to conceive. It is safe during breast feeding, beginning at six weeks after child birth. It helps prevent uterine tumours and pregnancy outside the womb.

IUD(intrauterine device): It is very effective, reversible and a long-term method. A trained family planning provider places a small device inside the womb. Periods may be heavier and longer, especially at first. There is brief discomfort after it has been inserted but there is no side-effect on breast feeding. It can be used after childbirth. Pelvic infection is likely if the user gets SII. Serious complications are rare. It can come out, especially in the first month, so checking the strings is important.

LAM (lactational amenorrheg method): A breast-feeding woman can opt for it till the baby is strictly on breast milk and she breast feeds often. Also, the periods should not have returned. The baby should be less than six months old. It is effective up to six months after childbirth. The woman must plan for another method when she no longer uses LAM.

Norplant implants: Six small capsules are placed under the skin of the upper arm. It is very effective up to five years. A woman can have the capsules taken out any time. She can decide to get pregnant once the capsules are taken out. There are changes in bleeding and mild headaches can occur. It helps prevent anaemia and pregnancy outside the womb. It is safe during breast-feeding, beginning at six weeks after childbirth.

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