Montessori laid stress on freedom of intellect
Lakhbir Kaur Deol
ontessori system of education is a scientific method based on discovered laws of development of the mind and body of the child. The founder of the system, Maria Montessori, was born on August 31, 1870, in Alcona, Italy.


Montessori laid stress on freedom of intellect
Lakhbir Kaur Deol

Montessori system of education is a scientific method based on discovered laws of development of the mind and body of the child. The founder of the system, Maria Montessori, was born on August 31, 1870, in Alcona, Italy.

She defied her orthodox father and rejected the mores of the conservative Italian society and studied science, becoming the first woman physician in Italy.

She believed that "One becomes a well balanced adult only if one has fully been a child". She, therefore, charted out a complete course to fully develop all capabilities and potentialities lying dormant in the personality of the child.

The basic idea of Montessori education is to awaken the urge for knowledge in the mind of every child. Montessori methods lay stress on the freedom of intellect, "a freedom within limits, achieved through order, which leads eventually to self-discipline."

Maria Montessori realised that all children go through various sensitive periods in particular areas during which they learn more easily than at any other time. "Teach me to do it myself". This simple but profound truth inspired Montessoriís lifelong pursuit of educational reform.

In 1906 she gave up her university chair and medical practice to work with a group of 60 young children of working parents in San Lorenzo district of Rome. It was there that she founded the first Casa dei Bambini, or "Childrenís House", which ultimately came to be known the Montessori method of education.

Every piece of equipment, every exercise, every method Montessori developed was based on what she observed in children to do "naturally", by themselves, unassisted by adults.

These materials combined with her child-centred learning and play material help the child achieve a balance in his/her life at school.

Children must make their own choices and adjust to environment freely and without fear. Maria designed sandpaper letters and saw how children naturally ran their fingers along the edges. Where the rough met the smooth, they learnt the shapes of letters without being told to. They went from tracing the shapes with their fingers to writing them on the chalkboard. Thus, Maria brought the "explosion into writing" where pre-school children were able to read and write something, which they normally learn at six.

On April 7, 1907, she opened the second school in San Lorenzo. Newspapers reported that "miracles" were taking place in Mariaís Schools. People started visiting her schools and were astonished to see children picking up everything on their own.

In Montessori schools there are four areas in which the whole education revolves around are: exercises of practical life, sensorial activities, language and arithmetic.

The materials are kept in a special order and all racks, furniture is of child size so that a child can work independently. The environment has potted plants, fish bowls, and curtains so that children get the feel of a home away from home.

In Mariaís view the task of the teacher is to prepare the environment and then witness the unfolding of the human soul.

The Spanish Government invited her to open a research institute in 1917. In 1919, she began a series of teacher training courses in London. In 1922, she was appointed government inspector of schools in her native Italy, but because of her opposition to Mussoliniís fascism, she was forced to leave Italy in 1934.

Her revolutionary methods for infusing the spirit of freedom, democracy and human sensitivity in the minds of children were looked with scorn by Mussolini and his authoritarian acolytes.

She played a significant role in Spainís civil war along with other democratic intellectuals. She travelled to Barcelona, Spain, and was rescued there by a British cruiser in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War.

She opened the Montessori Training Centre in Laren, Netherlands, in 1938 and founded a series of teacher training courses in India in 1939.

In 1940, when India entered World War II, she and her son, Mario Montessori, were interned as enemy aliens, but she was permitted to conduct training courses. Later, she founded the Montessori Centre in London (1947). She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize three times ó in 1949, 1950, and 1951 ó but could not make it due to her radical views on social issues.

Maria Montessori died in Noordwijk, Holland, in 1952, but her work lives on through the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI), the organisation she founded in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in 1929 to carry on her work.

The writer is AMI-trained Montessori teacher.




Dr MGR Education & Research Institute, Periyar EVR Salai, (NH 4 Highway), Maduravoyal, Chennai 600095 (Deemed Univ)

Tel Ph: 044-23782176/ 2186/ 2085

M Tech (FT/ PT)

Eligibility: BE /BTech (Appl Electron/ Comm Sys/ VLSI Des & Embedded Sys/ Bio Med/ CSE/ Comp Sc & Networking/ Power Elect & Drives/ Power Sys/ CIM/ CAD/CAM/ Machine Des/ IE/ Env Engg/Struct Engg).

Application Form: Send Rs. 500/- by DD fvg "Dr MGR Educational and Research Inst" payable at Chennai at the above add


September 4

Pune Institute of Engineering & Technology, D/o Electronics & Telecommunications, Extension Building, III Floor, Govt College of Engg, Shivaji Nagar, Pune 411005 (Affltd to University of Pune)

Adv Dip (Embedded Sys Des)

Details: Website


Environment & Forestry

September 30

Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical & Technological Sciences, A-15, Paryavaran Complex, South of Saket, New Delhi-110030. (With Indian Institute of Ecology & Environment)

MSc. (2-yr, dist)

Ecology & Environ, Disaster Mitigation, Sustainable Dev, Geo-informatics, TQM, Eco-Tourism

Eligibility: Bachelors Deg.

Application Form: Send Rs. 45/- by DD fvg "Indian Institute of Ecology & Environment" payable at New Delhi



November 19

Fore School of Mangement, B-18, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi 110016

PG Dip in Bus Mgt (2-yr, FT)

Eligibility: Bachelorís Deg

Selection: GMAT/CAT (November 21) Scores, GD & Interview (at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkatta, Bílore & Híbad)

Details: Website


December 31

New Delhi Institute of Management, 61,Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 061


Selection: CAT (November 21) Scores, GD & Personal Interview

Details: Website.


October 20

Jt Management Entrance Test (JMET-2004)

PG Programme in Mgt at IITs & IISc (FT, 2-yr; PT, 3-yr)

Details: Website.


November 20

Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management, Sec-III, R K Puram, New Delhi-110022

PG Prog in Mgt (2-yr/FT)

Eligibility: Bachelorís Deg

Selection: CAT-2004 Scores, GD, Extempore & Personal Interview .

Details: Website.


November 19

University Business School, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Masterís Prog (2-yrs) :

(MBA/ MBA-Intíl Bus/ MBA HR)

Eligibility: Bachelorís/PG deg in any discipline (50%)/ ICAI/ ICWAI/ ICSI or AMIE (50%).

Selection: CAT (November 21) Score, GD & Interview.

Application Form: Send Rs. 1050/- by DD fvg "Registrar, Panjab University" payable at Chandigarh to Manager, Publication Bureau, at above add with self-add env (30 x 25 cm) by November 08.

Indian Institute of Material Management, Plot No. 102, Sec-15, Institutional Area, Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400614

(in Collab with Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) Univ, Red Cross Bhawan, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal 462016)

MBA (Materials Mgt) (Dist; 3-yr)

Selection: Aptitude Test (12 September).

Application Form: Send Rs 180/- by DD fvg "Registrar, MPBOU, Bhopal" to above add.

Details: Website.


Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, D/o Distance Learning, VL Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400 056 (Deemed University)

PG Diploma (Gen Mktg/ Mktg/ Fin/ HR; 2-yr)

Diploma (Gen Mktg/ Mktg/ Fin/ HR; 1-yr)

Details: Website.


September 10

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 ,

MD/MS/MCh (6-yr)/ MDS/ DM/ MCh/ MHA & PhD - 2005

Details: Website.


Protective Services

September 5

Directorate General, CRPF (Training Branch) , East Block-10, Level-7, R K Puram, New Delhi 110066

Recruitment of Sub Inspectors & Constables (against sports quota)

Details: Employment News (21 -27 Aug)/ Website


August 31

HQ Rajasthan & Gujarat Frontier Border Security Force, Balsamand, Mandore Road, Jodhpur 342026 (Raj)

Recruitment of Constables (Gen Duty): In sports quota.

Eligibility: Cl.10 Age : 18-23 yr (on Aug 31)

Details: Employment News (21 -27 Aug).



September 13

Band Staff for Recruit Training Centre, Ch. Devi Lal Centre for Police Training & Research, Bhondsi (Har)

Recruitment of Constables (Male) Bag Piper, Side Drum, Tenor Drummer, Bass Drummer (40 posts)

Eligibility: Middle, knw of playing instrument/ music reading/ flair for music.

Age: 18-27 yrs (on 01 September).

Selection: I nterview/ Personality Test at Police Lines, Karnal on 13 September (8:00 am)

Application Form & Details: Leading National Dailies


August 31

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, 15/1 Cubbon Road, Bangalore 560001

Recruitment of Executive Trainees (Tech)

Eligibility: BE/ BTech (60%, Aero/ Electron/ Electr/ Mech/ Prod/ Comp Sc/ Metal) Age: 28-yr (on 1 September í04)

Details: Employment News (21 -27 Aug)/ Website



September 6

Directorate of Education, Old Secretariat (Welfare Branch) Delhi 110054

National Child Award for Exceptional Achievement

Eligibility: Exceptional Achievement (Acad/Art & Culture/ Sports)

Age: 4-15 yr

Application Form: Send in prescribed format with 2 attested passport photo, mentioning name, Dob, Pob, Edu Quali, Tel No, Add, Field of achievement, pp pics, how the performance is adjudged as exceptional & a brief sketch of the child to Mrs. Saroj Kapoor, Asst Director of Education, at the above add


September 3

United States Educational Foundation in India (USEFI) , 12, Hailey Road, New Delhi 110001

Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Bachelorís of Arts (Liberal Arts/ Humanities/ Social Sc) at select US Colleges.

Details: Website


September 20

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119

Univ Research Scholarships (Sc & Humanities)

Eligibility: Masterís deg in relv subj (55%). Age : <30

Selection: Merit in qualifying exam.

Application Form & Details: Send Rs 90/- by DD fvg "Registrar, K.U.", payable at Kurukshetra/Thanesar to the Manager (P&P) at above add. At Counter: Rs 50/- (cash)


Physical Science

September 30

Deptt of Oceanography & Meteorology, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam 530003 (AP)


Adv Training School in Tropical Cyclones (30 posts)

Eligibility: Masterís Deg (Phy/ Meteoro/ Atmos Sc/ Geophy/ Maths/ Stats/ Oceaono/ Comp Sc Age: 35-yr

Details: Employment News (14 -20 Aug)


Social Science

September 16

Anthropological Survey of India (GoI) , 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkatta 700016 (WB)

Research Fellowships:



Post Doctoral

Details: Employment News (21 -27 Aug)/ Website



Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha Kendra, 2 Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi 110092

September 3

Sec & Sr School Cert Exam (2005)

(For Private Candidates under Delhi Scheme)

September 10

Regular/Patrachar Vidyalaya

Application Form: At designated Syndicate Banks till Oct 23: Rs10/- (cash).


September 20

Military School, Chail (Shimla Hills) , Dist. Solan (HP) 173217

Common Entrance Test For Admission to Military Schools in Class VI

Eligibility: Boys (10-12 yr on Jul 1 Ď05).

Test: December 26 Ď04 (at 29 Centres across India)

Application Form: Send Rs 150/- by DD fvg "Principal, of the Military School" at the above add

University ó Distance/Open

September 29

Kurukshetra University, Directorate of Correspondence Courses, Kurukshetra 136119 (Har)

Traditional, Professional, Lateral Entry & others Courses

Application Form: Send Rs. 250/- by DD fvg "Registrar, KU" payable at Kurukshetra/ Thanesar, with two self-add slips marked ĎCC-04í to the Manager, P & P at above add./ Díload from Website


Details: Website

Pervin Malhotra, Director, CARING (,
New Delhi, Email: