L U D H I A N A   S T O R I E S


Labour unrest: leading firm threatens closure
K.S. Chawla

Ludhiana, June 12
A leading bicycle parts manufacturing unit has threatened to close down the factory if the alleged violence by labour is not stopped. This bicycle parts manufacturing unit is a sister organisation of the World’s largest bicycle manufacturers. This factory has two components — one dealing with the bicycle parts manufacture and the other with the autoparts.

The bicycle parts manufacturing unit has witnessed a strike by workers and also violence when the supervisor of the factory was allegedly beaten up. In a communication to the state Government, the management of the unit has alleged that the production of the unit had been adversely affected because of the labour problem. Not only this, they were constantly under threat of violence by the labour and the state government was providing neither security nor any assurance for smooth functioning of the unit.

The management further stated that they were competing with the Chinese in the international market and had been meeting all requirements of the labour. The parent bicycle manufacturing unit of the said factory is manufacturing as many as 15,000 bicycles daily and 4.5 lakh bicycles a month. They are providing employment to more than 8500 workers with all the facilities. The unit in question which has written to the state government about the uncertain situation is also employing 1500 workers and half of them are working in the cycle parts section.

As a matter of fact, Ludhiana’s bicycle industry which meets more than 90 per cent requirements of cycle parts, has been facing labour problem for the past two years. Lastly, the labour unions affiliated with CITU have been active. Earlier, the labour strike was enforced by INTUC which was followed by the Shiv Sena.

Following this letter to the state government, the police organised a flag march in focal point to give an assurance to the industry that the state Government would maintain law and order in the state.

A spokesman of the management of the factory said wages of the labour had been increased by 30 to 35 per cent whereas the production in the unit had fallen by 30 per cent.

Mr Somparkash, Labour Commissioner, Punjab, when contacted denied receiving any letter from the management of the factory. He claimed that there was no major labour problem in the industrial sector of the state and the industrial climate was very cordial. He maintained that there might be some problem of finances with the some industrial units.

Mr Somparkash also said the strike in KW Engineering Works had been called off today and now there was no strike in any of the industrial units in Ludhiana.

Mr Jatinder Kumar, president, CITU, confirmed that the settlement in KW Engineering Units had been arrive at.

The Chamber of Industrial and Commercial Undertakings, Ludhiana, president, Mr Inderjit Singh Pradhan, has also written to the Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, expressing concern over the deteriorating industrial climate in Ludhiana and has sought effective steps to check the rise in labour problems.

Mr Parkash Singh Badal, former Chief Minister, during his meeting with the Prime Minister, is also understood to have brought to his notice the fears of the industry.

Sources close to the labour organisations allege that the managements of the industry do not recognise the unions and also do not pay the wages regularly.



Youth suffers burns as car catches fire
Tribune News Service

Ludhiana, June 12
A youth suffered burn injuries on his face and arms when a car caught fire under mysterious circumstances outside his house in Krishna Nagar today afternoon. Timely rescue work done by passersby and neighbours saved the youth’s life.

The victim, Rupak Bansal, 25, had just switched on the ignition of the car when it caught fire. Police sources said the white coloured car, Maruti Zen (PB-10 AJ-0424) was probably run in LPG. The cylinder had run out of gas and the youth had switched over to petrol.

Fire brigade sources said with some short-circuit in the alternator or improper kit used in the LPG fitting could have caused the fire during the switchover to petrol from the gas mode.

Passersby and neighbours helped in dousing the flames. Passersby broke the window of the vehicle and rescued the youth. They also removed the LPG cylinder. The car was almost completely damaged from inside with partial damage to the engine.

He was rushed to the DMC Hospital. Doctors reported that he had suffered 10-15 per cent burns on his arms, face, head and lower abdomen. Police sources said the exact cause of fire was being determined.

This is the second such incident within three days in the city. On Friday, a car also running on LPG caught fire on Dugri bridge. The driver was saved again by passersby.

The city police had claimed to have carried out a drive against the use of LPG as fuel for running vehicles a few months ago on the directions of the district administration. 



Ex-Army nurse homeless again
Kanchan Vasdev
Tribune News Service

Ludhiana, June 12
Life has always been unkind to her. Orphaned when she was only some days old and brought up by a missionary school, 42-year-old, Lieut. M.G. Welseley, who once worked with Military Nursing Services, (MNS) of the Indian armed forces, has been again rendered homeless.

She was thrown out by the authorities from a room in old courts complex, a year after she was allowed to live here on sympathetic grounds by an official. Having no place to go, Ms Welseley is now forced to live outside the room waiting for help.

A team of officials concerned visited the place and threw her belongings outside. Her pleas to give her some time to find a shelter fell on deaf years. Now, she is living in the open, braving the hot sun.

Following her exit from the MNS after working for six years, Ms Welseley was trying to kick start her life when she was thrown out by her landlord some years ago. She has been fighting numerous court cases. And now, when she thought things were going her way she has been rendered homeless once again. She is moving from pillar to post to request the authorities concerned to allow her to stay in that room for some more time.

Having won the All-Round Good Worker Award, presented to her by former President of India, Fakhrudin Ali Ahmed, Ms Welseley had been mopping the floors of city residents and even taking to rag picking to fulfil her daily needs.

She was appointed in the MNS as a nurse in 1985 in Agra. She worked with the Army till 1992. Due to medical reasons she had to put in her papers. She said she was not given any pension as she could not put the required number of years for pension. Whatever money was given to her at that time was spent in fighting various court cases.

‘‘The thought of rains is giving me nightmares. All my important papers are lying in open. Once it rains these would be washed out. Already no one believes me that I worked with the Army. I have to produce my identity card to make them believe me. What if my papers are lost?’’ she asked.

I am going to meet the Chief Minister, asking him to intervene in the matter and let me stay in the room till I find a respectable place for myself,’’ she adds.



Ranjodh tops district in CET 
Asha Ahuja

Ludhiana, June 12
Ranjodh Singh of DAV Public School, Ludhiana, has secured eighth rank in the state and first rank in the district in the Common Entrance Test (CET). The results came out late last evening. Harvir Brar of the same school has secured eleventh position.

Ranjodh Singh said he had appeared for CET just for a lark. He had secured 91.4 per cent in non-medical in class XII. He has also given papers for IIT, Delhi College of Engineering, AIEEE, and BITS Ranchi. He has cleared the screening paper of IIT and the results of the mains are awaited. He loves playing cricket and computer games.

Harvir Brar was out of city when the results were out. In a telephonic talk, his father Nirmal Singh Brar said he had done better than their expectations. He was desirous of doing ‘electronic engineering, he added. Other students of DAV Public School who have got ranks below 500 are Hitesh Nagrath (69th), Puneet (109th) and Kanika (231st).

Eight students of Guru Nanak Public School have also secured ranks in the CET. They are Mandeep Kaur Khattra has got 60th rank, Ranjeet Singh Bawa 77th, Angad Singh Randhawa 86th, Karan Sandhu 184th, Harmanpreet Singh 287th, Tanya 476th, Shubh Karmandeep 721th rank and Ramneek Singh 1,140th.

BCM Arya Model School students also did well. Jatin Loomba secured 57th rank and Komal got 1000th.

But the students are shocked with the results announced by Punjab Technical University. Speaking to Ludhiana Tribune they said they had fared well in All-India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) conducted recently by the Central Board of Secondary Examination but their ranks have slid down so drastically in CET.

These candidates are doubting the marking procedure of the university. Amanpreet, a student of Tagore Public School, said he got 2000 rank in AIEEE but he thought that it was fair enough as it was on All-India level, but in CET his rank slid way down to 11,000, which really shocked him.

The students have been asked to meet PTU Registrar M.S. Grewal at his office on Monday morning. The students stated that counselling should not start till their papers are re-evaluated.

Dr Grewal said,”Some students had filled in vital information incorrectly and this led to delay in declaration of the results as the results were scheduled to be out on June 6. Codes are given for each paper. If maths is paper two and chemistry is paper three, the computer checks accordingly. Some students, who picked up maths and then, without completing it, shifted to chemistry have lost marks. One student got zero despite answering all questions. We checked it manually and all the answers were wrong.”



City bus stand in ruins
Rajkumar Masih

Ludhiana, June 12
The condition of the richest city’s bus terminal is worse than any bus stand in a remote village of the state. With deep pot holes, craters, filth, heaps of garbage, dust and a general uncleanliness all around, the bus stand presents a picture of disgust and official apathy.

Although several schemes have been mooted for the development of the place but not even regular maintenance was being carried out. Officials of various department easily pass the buck and point finger at each other for the dismal state of affairs. It is also unfortunate that no political will has been noticed to improve the condition.

Satnam Singh, who commutes daily to Khanna from here, opined that the state of the bus stand would approve only if politicians or bureaucrats who travel in posh cars have to use the bus services.

The very entrance of the bus stand is bumpy and have big pitches as a result of which the picture of bus stand becomes more horrible during rainy season. Water accumulates upto the tyre level of the buses and even causes break down of vehicles. It becomes a herculean task for a pedestrian to find a way to wade the deep pools of water.

Driver of a mini bus Kishan Singh said they pool money among themselves to fill the deep potholes. ‘‘We pool Rs 50 each from all bus conductors and had to arrange a private party to fill holes with soil.’’

There are big cracks in the building of the bus stand. There was no sign of white wash on the walls. Doors of the offices were rusted and the names of office concerned are not easily legible.

Only two ceiling fans are working and rest are just rods hanging in the air as they do not have blades. The sewerage holes are not covered properly and the arrangement of drinking water is not upto the standard.

Toilets are so filthy that it is impossible to stand even outside for a few seconds. Sukhwinder Singh, a student of BA III, and a daily passenger from Macchiwara to Ludhiana, said it was very unhygienic experience using the toilet.



Ludhiana Calling

Punjabis are hard working and innovative. So goes a common saying. Following the innovation of a ‘gharrukka’, a desi version of an automobile, prepared with the help of an engine and a rehra, the villagers have, of late, started using a moped to pull a cart. While it gives more mileage than any other vehicle run on petrol, the rehra attached to it does not cost much. And this has become a favourite with villagers who have to transport goods to far away places. It does not require much effort and the cost of petrol is also affordable.

Being benevolent

Ludhiana is often termed a city of filthy rich people. But few accolades have been showered on a good number of Good Samaritan Ludhianvis who have installed water-coolers, water tanks and even earthen pots outside their residences, shops and industries to offer free drinking water to thirsty passersby. The labourers, rickshaw drivers, and beggars benefit immensely from this benevolence.

Poor toilets in McDonalds

When McDonalds opened their outlet near Doraha amidst fanfare, one was happy to see the spick and span toilets. But the other day when Sentinel visited the place, the condition of the women’s toilets was appalling. Both the toilets were flooded with water, though one worker was trying to wipe away the extra water. But the water content was too much and the mop was proving to be ineffective. The lid of the toilet seat in one toilet had come off and was placed by the side. One expected a better upkeep from a joint owned by an MNC. That it was so shabby really upsets the users.

Summer camps

Every school worth its salt is holding summer camps. To be one up on the other schools, the schools try to entice parents by introducing maximum number of things. Some schools try to teach cooking, while others teach skating, and still others theatre. Students go out in hot weather. The fee charged is exorbitant. The school authorities say that the parents do not want the children home and they are happy sending them out to schools. The parents say that if they do not send their children, they will be left out.


Superstitions are causing much harm to the aquatic environment of various canals and Sutlej river lining the city. After every half an hour, one person or the other, ‘‘affected by the position of planets’’ reaches the banks of the water bodies and drops in something for ‘‘upai’’. Most of the people throw lead in the waters to ward off evil, little realising that lead is a toxic metal that can cause poisoning in human beings and cattle. As the canal water is used for irrigating crops and fodder its residues can harm humans as well as animals. Lead is a heavy metal and is known to cause cancer in human beings also.

Flood menace

Will the civic administration find a way or formulate a definite strategy to combat the problem of floods caused by the overflowing to Buddha Nullah every year? The polluted nullah overflows every year in some colonies even before monsoons. Recently water had flooded many houses in Mahavir Jain Colony and later in many other areas. It was only after the floods that the administration woke up and ordered strengthening of the bundh lining the nullah and cleaning of weeds. Every year the bundh has to be strengthened and weed has to be removed. Residents also have to suffer due to polluted water. Despite technological advancements, there is no permanent solution to the problem. Lakhs of rupees are spent every year on the same activities, which have to be repeated again and again.


Days of militancy are long over in the tate. But the cinema halls in the city, barring only one, are yet to get over the hangover. Even after a decade of peace in the state, cinema owners have not started late night shows. This is quite shocking as the city boasts of nightlife which is akin to life in national capital. People stay out in clubs, marriage palaces, and restaurants even up to 3 a.m. Yet, the cinema halls continue to live in the past.


Shops in Ludhiana are not only closed following a bandh call but also during the hot summer. There are many markets in the city where these shopkeepers decide together and close their shops to go for a holiday. It is the turn of shopkeepers of Sarabha Nagar mini market to go on a holiday now. They have put up a notice outside the shops that these would be closed for a few days. “Why not ? We can also have a holiday with our families,’’ said a shopkeeper.

— Sentinel



District Youth Cong all set for makeover
Kuldip Bhatia

Ludhiana, June 12
The newly nominated president of the District Youth Congress (DYC), Mr Dimple Rana, today indicated that a new-look working committee and office-bearers would be announced in next couple of days.

He said the clean image, organisational skills and contribution made to the party would be the criteria for selection of functionaries of the party’s district unit under the guidance of state leadership of YC and other senior party leaders.

Mr Rana was addressing a felicitation function organised by Mr Raj Malhotra in Naya Mohalla Lakkar Bazar. Speaking at the well-attended meeting, he said the district unit of the party had suffered a setback in the recent past due to self-seeking policies and ‘questionable’ manner of working of persons who were at the helm.

He vowed that his first and foremost task would be to revive the organisations right up to the grass-root level and to improve the sullied image of the youth wing of the ruling party.

The DYC president further maintained that once the new working committee was in place, the party would launch a concerted drive to take the policies and programmes of the Congress to people from all walks of life while at the same time apprise them of the nefarious designs of certain opportunist political parties, which were once again out to disturb peace and tranquility in this border state.

Among others, Mr Jatinder Titu, Mr Ajay Tanky, Mr Hemant Kumar Sharma, Mr Harcharan Singh, Mr Pradeep Shukla, Mr J.P. Grewal, Mr Ramesh Sachar, Mr Mukesh Kumar, Dr P.C. Sharma and Mr Jatinder Toni also attended the function.

Meanwhile, the former state president of Bhartiya Janata Yuva Morcha, Mr Sukhminder Singh Grewal, charged the ruling Congress with fomenting communal tension in a bid to create 1984-like situation in Punjab.

In a statement here today, he said it was a historical truth that whenever the Congress came to power either in the states or in the Centre, the communal tension had resurfaced.

He claimed that the ruling party had played a big role in disturbing the situation inside the Golden Temple complex as the Congress wanted to consolidate its vote bank by creating terror in the minds of the people of Punjab.

Mr Grewal further alleged that Mr Simranjit Singh Maan and his close associates, who had allegedly raised pro-Khalistan slogans inside the Golden Temple, were agents of the Congress and were carrying out such anti-national activities at the behest of Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh.



Politics of one-upmanship costs Punjab dear
K.S. Chawla

Ludhiana, June 12
The last three years have witnessed a queer political scenario in Punjab. The main political players have been the Akalis led by Mr Parkash Singh Badal and the Congress led by Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh.

Captain Amarinder Singh got to a head start with a declaration that he would give better governance and cleanse the administration of corruption.

In fact, he carried out a tirade against corruption especially aimed at the former Punjab Public Service Commission chairman, Ravi Sidhu, and the entire Badal family.

Though his vigilance bureau had been overly active against the Badals, yet eventually the campaign was reduced to a personal fight between the two stalwarts.

Interestingly, both of them had worked together in the Akali party. Captain Amarinder Singh had been a Minister in the Surjit Singh Barnala government in the eighties.

Both of them have caught the imagination of the masses, particularly Sikhs, and are being judged by their actions affecting the future of the Sikhs and the Punjab.

While Badal identified himself with the NDA government to assuage the bruised feelings of the Sikh panth, Captain Amarinder Singh went along with the Congress to bring about cordial relations between the Sikhs and the Congress using his personal rapport with Mrs Sonia Gandhi.

The fact remains that none of them has been able to solve or even facilitate the solution to the Punjab’s and Sikh problems.

Both of them have been skirting the real issues. Now when the time is ripe for enactment of an all-India Gurdwara Act, Captain Amarinder Singh has shown no inclination to persuade the Central Government to rise to the occasion.

As a matter of fact, the Sikh sentiments are attached to this demand which remained a part of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution for decades.

The outcry for a separate Haryana Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee will surely complicate the matters for the Congress. Captain Amarinder Singh's silence is intriguing in this regard.

There are sufficient indications to show that the Sikh hardliners or extremists are far from being vanquished. They are still active as the current news indicate.

The arrest of Jagtar Singh Hawara and his earlier escape from Burail Jail and his safe hiding for quite sometime within Punjab should be a sufficient lesson for the Punjab Government and its police force which had claimed that Hawara and his other three associate had crossed over to Pakistan.

The state government has also not taken any positive steps to release the persons detained for years together without trial.

On the other hand, the Akalis led by Mr Parkash Singh Badal, know fully well that they do not have any capacity to withstand the pressure of the extremist forces. The incidents at Akal Takht on June 6 are clear indicators to the same.

The political observers of the Punjab state are concerned with the fact that the two leaders — Mr Badal and Captain Amarinder Singh — continue hurling abuses on each other.

They are indulging in the politics of one-upmanship, compromising the fate of Punjab where the development is at a low level and the quality of life has improved in no way.

The Amarinder Singh government surely does not have much to its credit on the development front.

The anti-corruption campaign has completely derailed and there is no shortage of beneficiaries of power.

The state administration has also not freed itself from the favourites and from the clutches of henchmen.

Most of the people have genuine fear that the mutually antagonistic politics of Amarinder Singh and Badal will vitiate the peaceful atmosphere of Punjab and may bring back the days of darkness of eighties in another shape.



Sahnewal youth falling prey to drug menace
Lovleen Bains

Sahnewal, June 12
Youth of Sahnewal and its adjoining villages have fallen to the menace of the drugs.
Youth of the town and villages including Kohara, Heeran, Kot Gangu Rai, Katani, Pangalian, Gobindgarh, Mangali, Jhabewal, Sahibana, Majara, Natt, Tibba, Umaidpur, Dharaur, Paddi, Jassar, Nandpur, Pawa Khagat, Jugiana, Sahni, Kanech, Rampur etc are ruining their health and squandering away the hard-earned money of their parents on drugs.

Residents complained that a large number of the medical stores at Sahnewal were selling drugs at cheaper rates but the authorities on the other hand seemed to have turned a blind eye to this menace. Sleeping pills such as Huminol, cough syrups as corex, muscle relaxants such as Spasmo-Proxivon and Parwan, anti- depressent drugs, pain-killers, Fortwin injections, Gardinal (drug for epilapsy) etc were selling like hot cakes at these chemist shops.

A renowned surgeon of the area, on condition of anonymity, said that more than half of the chemists shops and the RMPs practicising in the surrounding villages are involved in free trade of these ‘restricted’ drugs. “All these drugs were a controlled items and are to be sold only at the written prescription of a qualified doctor. Moreover, the record of its purchase and sale has to be kept at all costs,” he added.

An addict admitted of being a regular customer of one such chemist shop from where he said that he regularly brought these drugs. Asked whether he knew about what the dangers of taking drugs, he replied,“I have come very far. Its too late now to repent and return.”

There were varied reasons due to which these youth were spoiling their lives. Dr Jagmohan Singh said, “With the arrival of migrants, these youth have a lot of leisure time to get involved in these type of activities. As the work is done by hired labour, these youths get hooked to drugs and are lead astray. This also gives birth to other social evils and crimes as robberies and murders. Moreover their condition makes them indulge in spared syringes, unsafe and illegal sex that further AIDS.”

Mr Manjit Singh Dhillon, a progressive farmer, said, “Want of money, happiness, contentment and peace, are other reasons for these youth being hooked to deadly drugs. They find an easy solution of their problems and seek ultimate respite in these intoxicants. Unemployment is another cause. An educated youth seeks a white-collar job for himself, the non-availability of which makes him depressed and finally turns him into an addict. When their life reaches at a low ebb, they try their luck through ‘lotteries,’ thus giving rise to another evil.”

“With every rising day, the number of such people hooked to deadly drugs is growing manifold for which the officials seem to be least bothered,” a resident complained.

Dr S S Dhir, SMO, Sahnewal, when contacted said that in the absence of written complaint, it was difficult to nab such offenders. “Even then, we are vigilant about it and shall be conducting surprise checks. Alongside the drug de-addiction camps and health awareness programmes are being carried out in the villages as well as towns,” he added.

Prof Balwant Singh Pangali, a prominent personality of the area said, “The situation is so grim that it has to be tackled collectively. The Health Department should rise to the occasion, while the role of parents and teachers is of paramount importance. The parents need to monitor the activities of their adolescent child, the teachers should play the role of a friend, philosopher and true guide for them. Moreover, the spirit of dignity of labour, sadly missing in the youngsters today, should be inculcated at all costs. A survey should be conducted, and those who are ‘idle or out of job must be trained in various self-employment courses. The health department and the police should work in collaboration to eradicate this evil and save the future of tomorrow.” 



Atwal inspects bridge site
Ravi Inder Singh Makkar

Machhiwara, June 12
Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha Charanjit Singh Atwal surprised one and all by his sudden visit to Machhiwara Rohan bridge site to take stock of the work in progress.
This bridge, which is about to be completed in a few days, was started with sincere efforts of Mr Atwal when he was Speaker, Vidhan Sabha, Punjab, in the then SAD- BJP government.

Mr Atwal showed his enthusiasm by seeking full details about the work from PWD officials present on the site.

It is worth-mentioning that the construction of the bridge had started on February 14, 2001.

Taking to mediapersons, Mr Atwal said though he had got many projects launched for the welfare of public but joining the Malwa-Doaba region with the construction of this bridge gave him a lot of pleasure and satisfaction.

Mr Atwal added that the traffic problem at Khanna had been solved with the construction of a flyover. 



Cracks appear in revenue officers’ association
Our Correspondent

Mandi Ahmedgarh, June 12
Claiming themselves to be office-bearers of the Punjab Revenue Officers Association, Mr A S Tiwana and Mr Gurmit Singh Nadala, (president and general secretary) of the association respectively, have termed the election meeting convened at Hotel Amaltas, Ludhiana, on Saturday as unconstitutional.

Meanwhile, Mr Mukesh Sharma, who had been declared elected Finance Secretary of the body consecutively for the thirteenth year, has stated that he will not accept any office in the union till there was factionalism.

While talking to Ludhiana Tribune Mr Tiwana and Mr Nadala held that the meeting held on Saturday was not constitutional. They alleged that Mr Baljit Sidhu, Mr Subhash Padam and his associates had misguided the media that more than 125 members had attended the meeting. They claimed that only 48 of the 305 members were present at the meeting and 10 out of them opposed the decision to hold the election.

“We have already issued notices to 11 members of the union who had earlier misused the letter pad of the organisation for sending election notice. Moreover, Mr Iqbal Singh Sidhu, who had been requested by them to supervise the election did not come for doing so,” explained the office-bearers. The election according to them was scheduled to take place on July 9.

On the other hand Mr Baljit Sidhu, claiming to be the president of the union, had stated that he would be serving a show-cause notice to Mr Nadala for calling a parallel meeting scheduled to take place on July 9. 



NRI Punjabi honoured
Our Correspondent

Ludhiana, June 12
Mr Tarlochan Singh Virk, a Punjabi enthusiast running the Punjabi Listeners Club (PLC) in Leicester City in the midlands of England, was honoured for his endeavour to upkeep Punjabi language, culture and heritage by the Dhan Pothohar Brotherhood, Punjab, organized at Hotel Nanda here today.

Mr N.S. Nanda, president of the body, highlighted the activities of the Dhan Pothohar Brotherhood. Those present on the occasion included Mr M.S. Suri, Mr Harjit Singh Lamba, Mr Davinderbir Singh Nanda, Mr Jagdev Singh Chadha .



Free yoga camp from June 15
Our Correspondent

Ludhiana, June 12
A free yoga camp will be organised at Dayanand Medical College and Hospital (DMCH) here from June 15 to 21. The week-long camp will have a two-hour daily session from 5 to 7 in the evening. Giving this information, the DMCH Medical Superintendent (P) said the camp would be held under the guidance of Dr Sanjeev Singh Rawat, associated with Swami Ramdev for the past 14 years.


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