The child must be
in school

Compulsory schooling and child labour can’t go together, says
Ashok Agarwal

Article 21 A, which was added to the Constitution in December, 2002, makes right to free and compulsory education of every child in the age group of 6-14 a fundamental right.
Photograph by Pradeep Tiwari

The Tribune, Air-India Rank and Bolt Awards
pplications are invited for the Race for Awareness and Knowledge (Rank) award, which is for students, and the Broad Outlook Learner Teacher (Bolt) award, which is for teachers.

Campus SCENE
Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar
8.36-cr World Bank aid for varsity departments
Sunit Dhawan
he World Bank has provided an aid of Rs 8.36 crore for the provision of better facilities at three departments of the university under its Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme.

Onsite-learning classroom launched


The child must be in school
Compulsory schooling and child labour can’t go together, says Ashok Agarwal

Article 21 A, which was added to the Constitution in December, 2002, makes right to free and compulsory education of every child in the age group of 6-14 a fundamental right.

The age of compulsory schooling has been constitutionally recognised for the first time. The core issue is whether or not the Article has brought any change in the legal status of child labour.

The legal status of the child labour at the time of incorporation of this Article in the Constitution can be seen through the provisions of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 (in short, Child Labour Act, 1986). The Act does not completely prohibit child labour in all its forms. On the other hand, it permits children to work in all occupations and processes other than the hazardous ones, that too, as set forth in Part A and Part B of the Schedule to the Act. The Delhi Shops and Establishments Act, 1954, completely prohibits labour by children below the age of 12.

The situation in the country is grim and unfortunate. Nearly 10 crore children below the age of 14 are not attending full-time formal school and are engaged in one or the other type of work. This is nothing but child labour. The distinction between hazardous and non-hazardous work in relation to a child is bogus. The number of child labourers has been increasing, in spite of government’s claims to the contrary.

Child labour and right to education cannot go together. The Article is meaningless, if child labour in all its forms is not wiped out; therefore, it is legitimate to read “complete prohibition of child labour in all forms” in the Article.

The minimum age for entering a job should not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling. The ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138), which built on the ten instruments adopted before World War II, endorses this point. The aim is to ensure that children’s human capital is developed to its fullest potential, by letting them grow before they start earning.

Article 1 of the Convention provides that each member for whom this Convention is in force undertakes to pursue a national policy designed to ensure the effective abolition of child labour and to raise progressively the minimum age for admission to employment, consistent with the fullest physical and mental development of young persons. Paragraph 2 of Article 2 provides that the minimum age shall not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling and in any case not less than 15 years.

Article 32 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child recognises the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or interfere with child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health, physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social.

The Article also provides that the state parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure its implementation; provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admissions to employment; provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment; and provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the Article.

The age of compulsory schooling in our country is now up to 14; all children up this age are deemed to be prohibited to work.

The Second Labour Commission of the Government of India noted: “The only way to prevent child labour is to recognize that the rightful place of children is in school, not in the work place or in the house. So, the first step is to ensure compulsory primary education. Historically and world-wide, wherever child labour has been abolished, this is how it has been done.”

The classification among the forms of child labour for the purpose of prohibition is illegal and unconstitutional now. The other fundamental and human rights of the child also cannot be protected unless the child is enrolled and retained in full-time formal school.

The Tribune, Air-India Rank and Bolt Awards

Applications are invited for the Race for Awareness and Knowledge (Rank) award, which is for students, and the Broad Outlook Learner Teacher (Bolt) award, which is for teachers.

Only students who are studying in Class VIII and above are eligible to apply for the Rank awards.

The category boxes on the Rank award forms are not to be filled by the applicants.

Readers would recall that Air-India, in collaboration with The Tribune, has instituted awards to recognise excellence and promote the concept of ‘towards responsible and active citizenship’. These awards are for students and teachers of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh. The selected students and teachers will travel to Singapore on a visit sponsored by Air-India. Two persons, a teacher and a student from each of the three states and Chandigarh, will be selected for the awards.

Forms for the awards can be downloaded from the following websites: or

The last date for the submission of completed forms is June 30.


Campus SCENE
Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar
8.36-cr World Bank aid for varsity departments
Sunit Dhawan

The World Bank has provided an aid of Rs 8.36 crore for the provision of better facilities at three departments of the university under its Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme. The project coordinator, Dr C. P. Kaushik, said the money would be utilised in purchasing the latest world-class laboratory equipments for the departments of Environment Science and Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering and Printing Technology.

Students, teachers and other officials of the institutes of higher education would also be involved in a capacity-building programme for academic excellence attached to the scheme, he said, adding that the scheme would focus on development of technology beneficial for society.

Psycho clinic

The Department of Applied Psychology will now organise full-day psychological clinics on every Friday. While no fee will be charged from students, teachers and other staff members of the university, the outsiders will have to pay Rs 20 per head.

The in-charge of the department, Dr Jyotsana, said apart from providing counseling on anxiety, depression, phobias and other psychological disorders, the clinics would also cater to those aspiring for self-betterment, confidence-building and personality improvement. The clinics will be organised from the fresh academic session beginning in July. Earlier, the psycho clinics were held for two hours on every Friday.

Non-teaching employees’ stir

Members of the Non-Teaching Employees Association of the university launched a stir in protest against the allotment of C-type houses on the university campus to faculty members.

The association leaders pointed out that the houses of the said category were meant for the non-teaching employees and not for the faculty members.

Open-air theatre inaugurated

The Hisar divisional Commissioner, Mr R. R. Fuliya, who is also acting Vice-Chancellor of the university, recently inaugurated an open-air theatre on the GJU campus.

A colourful cultural programme was also organised on this occasion, in which students displayed their skills in dancing, singing and other theatrical art forms.

Onsite-learning classroom launched
Poonam Batth

Hughes, the world’s leading provider of satellite broadband services, networks and products for business, government and consumers, has launched its 48th interactive education classroom—the Direcway Global Education classroom—in Jammu. The 10-seater, interactive onsite-learning classroom is the first one to be set up in Jammu and Kashmir. At present, six management programmes are being offered to students. Hughes’s Direcway Global Education Platform offers programmes in management education from the nine leading institutes across India. "With the setting up of this classroom, students and working professionals will now be able to access high-quality and affordable management programmes from leading institutes of the country without having to move out of the city,” said Mr Srikant Acharya, Vice-President, Hughes Escorts Communications Limited.




Sciences Physical

June 30
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085
Post MSc Dip in Radiological Physics

Elig: MSc (Phys, 50%). DoB: on/ after Oct 01, ‘77.

Selection: Merit, Interview, Med fitness.

Appln F: Send Rs 50 by DD fvg "Dy. Controller of Accounts, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai" in prescribed format with self-add env (23 x 10 cm) and specified enclosures to Dy Establishment Officer (R-II) at the above add. Superscribe env "Application for Dip. R.P.-(2005-06)".

Details: Employment News (4-10 June)

Mass Communication: Publishing

June 15
National Book Trust, India A-15 Green Park Extn, New Delhi 110016

Training Course in Book Publishing (4-wk)

Elig: Bachelor’s deg.

Selectn: Interview.

Appln F: Send Rs 100 by DD fvg "National Book Trust, India" to Shri Sumit Bhattacharya, Asst. Director (Prodn) at above add. Superscribe env "For Training Course in Book Publishing".

Art & Design: Fashion

June 20

Small Industries Service Institute, Industrial Area-B, Ludhiana 141003 (in collab with Process & Product Dev Centre, Meerut, UP)
Ph: 0161-2531733/4/5

Entrepreneurship Devt Prog (at Jalandhar):
Fashion Des of Leather Garments & Sports Goods/Wears (6-wk).

Elig: Punj & UT Ch’garh domicile, 10+2, Age: 18 yrs & above on 24 June 05.

Selectn: Interview (24 June).

Appln F: From above add.

June 30

Central Footwear Training Institute, Chennai, (M/o SSI- GoI), 65/1, GST Road, Guindy, Chennai 600 032

1) Dip in Footwear Des & Prodn (2-yr)
2) PG Dip in Footwear Tech (1-yr)
3) Post Dip in Footwear Tech (1-yr)
4) Certificate in Footwear Tech (1-yr)

Elig: For 1:10+2. For 2: Bachelor’s deg For 3: Dip For 4: Cl.10 (Pass/Fail).

Age Limit: For 1:(17-25 yrs), For 2,3,4: (35 yrs)

Appln F: Send Rs 300 by DD fvg "Director, CFTI, Chennai" at above add/ d’load from website.

Details: Employment News (4-10 June)/ Website

Annamalai University (in collab with) NIFD, F-3 Campus, Hauz Khas, Enclave, New Delhi 110016

BSc in Fashion/ Interior/ Textile Des (3 yr)

Diploma Courses (1-2 yr Govt recog/ Univ)

Certificate Courses (Apparel Mktg & Merchandising)

Elig: 10+2

Details: Website.


July 8

Regional Research Laboratory, Bhopal (CSIR), Hoshangabad Rd, Habibganj Naka, Bhopal 462026 (MP)

Junior Research Fellowship-2005

Elig: Bachelors in Engg (Metall, Mechan, Minerals, Civil & Chemical). Valid Gate scores/ academic record.

Details: Employment News (4-10 June)/ Website.

September 27
National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT), Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110016

National Talent Search Exam 2006

Elig: Cl 10

Selectn: State Level Written Exam: 27 Nov (For Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur & Nagaland: 26 Nov) National Level Exam: 14 May

Appln F: Contact Liaison Officers (LOs) at Regional Centres/ d’load from website.

Details: Employment News (4-10 June)/ Website

Physically Handicapped

June 30

Chandigarh College of Engineering & Technology, Sec 26, Chandigarh

SPWD Scheme for the Disabled (centrally sponsd)

1) Formal Programmes:

Dip in Civil Engg/ Elect Engg/ Mech Engg/ Electron & Comm Engg/ Arch Asstnshp (3-yr)

2) Non-Formal Programmes in MS Office & Comp Appl/ data Entry Oper/ Garment Tech/ Photocopying & Lamination/ Desk Top Publishing/ Basic Comp Course (for visually impaired)/ Repair & Maintn of Electrical/Electron appliances/ Welding & Fabrication.

Elig: More than 40% disability, For 1: Cl. 10 (Sc/ Maths/ Eng).

Selectn: Interview

Appln F: Free at College.


June 28

Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001 (Har)

LLB (5-yr Integrated)

(At 1) Institute of Law & Mgt Studies, Gurgaon; 2) D/o Law, MDU & affld coll)

Elig: For 1: 10+2 (50%), Min Age: 20 yrs on 1 July, 05

For 2: 10+2 (40%)

Selectn: Joint Entrance Test (Rohtak & Gurgaon).

Appln F: Send Rs 550 by DD fvg "Finance Officer, M.D. University, Rohtak" payable at SBI, MDU Branch, (Code No.4734).


Punjab Technical University, Ladowali Road, Jalandhar 144001 (Regional Learning Centres)

Programmes: (Distance Edu)

1) MBA (2-yr)

2) PGDBM (1-yr)

3) MSc (IT) 2-yr

4) MCA (3-yr)

5) BBA (3-yr)

6) BSc (IT) 3-yr

7) BCA (3-yr)

8) PGDCA (1-yr)

Lateral Entry to PG Progs:

MSc (IT, 1-yr), MCA (3rd/ 2nd yr), MBA (2nd yr)

Appln: "Director Distance Education" Punjab Technical University, Ladowali Road, Jalandhar.

June 21

Punjabi University, Patiala (Punj)

B Tech (6-yr integr)
(at Yadavindra College of Engg, Punjabi Univ, Guru Kashi Campus, Talwandi Sabo)*

Elig: Matriculate (55%), 8 yrs of edu in a rural school. Parents must be rural residents.

Appln F: Send Rs 25/- by DD fvg "Registrar, Punjabi University, Patiala" payable at Patiala with stamped (Rs 7/-) self add env (7"x 4") at above add.

*Golden Heart Freeship Scheme available for poor rural students


Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119. (Har)

June 30

1) Certificate Course in Phy Ed (1-yr)

July 15 2) Dip Course in Phy Ed (1-yr)

3) PG Dip in Yoga (1-yr)

Elig: For 1: 10+2. For 2: BA/ BSc (Phy Ed) Health Ed & Sports (50%), For 3: Bachelor’s Deg

Selectn: Entrance Test For 3 (22 July)

Appln F: Send Rs450/- by DD fvg "Registrar, K. U ", payable at Kurukshetra to Manager P & P at above add/ d’load from website. Code No.PEd-05)

Details: Website.

All India Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Haji Ali Park, K.Khadye Marg, Mahalaxmi, Mumbai-400034 (Mah) (Affl to Maharashtra Univ of Health Sc).

July 22 1) Bachelor of Prosthetics & Orthotics (3½ -yr)

June 30 2) PG Certificate Course in Rehabilitation for Doctors (4-wk)

Elig: For 1: Class 12 (PCB & Eng, 50%). For 2: MBBS Docs, Masters in Ortho, Paediatrics & Gen Med. DoB: For 1: Born on or before 1 Jan ‘89 For 2: 45 yrs on June 30,’05.

Selectn: Interview: (27 July).

Appln F: Send Rs 100/- by IPO fvg "Director, All India Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Mumbai-34" with self-add, stamped (Rs 32/-) env (23 x 11.5 cm) to the Academic Section at above add. For 1: Superscribe env "Course: B.P.O/2005-2006" in bold.


July 10

University of Lucknow, Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow 226007 (UP)

Master of Development Economics & Mgt (Job-oriented, 2-yr, FT)

Elig: Bachelor’s Deg (48%).

Appln F: Send Rs.300 by DD fvg "FO, MDEM, IDS, Lucknow University A/c" payable at Lucknow at above add by 30 June.

July 1

University of Calcutta, D/o Commerce, Asutosh Building, Kolkata 700073

Master of Business Admin in Finance

Elig: Bachelor’s Deg (50%).

Appln F: Send Rs 500 by DD fvg "Co-ordinator, MBA in Finance, University of Calcutta at above add/ d’load from website.

Details: Website

July 2

Institute of Management Technology (IMT Ghaziabad).

Courses through distance learning:

3 years MBA with specialisation in Marketing, Finance, HRD, International Business, Merchant Banking, Operations & Systems.

2 years MMM.

2 years MHRM.

2 years MSCM.

1-year specialised diploma courses in:

Business Administration, Marketing Mgt,

Export Mgt, Personnel Mgt,

Financial Mgt.

Eligibility: For Master’s graduate. For One-year diploma courses: 10+2 with 5 yrs experience or graduate. Details: IMT Study Centre, 40TF, sant Ishar Singh Nagar, Pakhowal Road, Ludhiana-141001. Phone: 0161-2421520, 9872290557.

— Pervin Malhotra