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Editorials | Article | Middle | Oped | Reflections

EDITORIALS

Make it uniform
Address Kalam’s concerns
T
he Prevention of Disqualification (Amendment) Bill, 2006, popularly known as the Office of Profit Bill, which President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has returned to Parliament for reconsideration has evoked mixed reaction.

Sex scandal
All the guilty must be punished
T
he victims of the Srinagar sex scandal must be feeling a little relieved with the arrest of one of the key accused, a Deputy Superintendent of Police.

Illegal turns legal
Punjab out to emulate Delhi
E
lection time is the time for politicians to remember that they have some voters to take care of, whom they had neglected during the past four years or so. Every neta worth his gaddi is on his best behaviour.

 



EARLIER STORIES



ARTICLE

Migration muddle
European intolerance on the rise
by S. Nihal Singh
S
pain is battling with a problem other European Union countries have been experiencing in the past: how to cope with a flood of refugees from Africa? The Spanish Canary Islands are only 900 miles from Senegal and floods of refugees keep coming — 7,000 arrived on the islands this year, compared to 4,700 in the whole of last year.

MIDDLE

A triple jubilee of sorts
by Baljit Malik
I
T’s my 60th year in Kasauli, 50th as a freebooter journalist, 25th as a contributor to The Tribune. Kasauli has changed, yet it hasn’t, hardly bothering to look over its shoulder.

OPED

Defence management crisis
Don’t compromise on CDS, procurement
by Premvir Das
W
hile discussing the recent book on the Kargil War authored by the former Army Chief, General VP Malik, a well known analyst argued in this newspaper that victory was achieved because of close coordination between the Army and the Air Force through the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).

It’s time to save the whales–again
by Joshua Reichert
O
ne of the most heralded victories of the global environmental movement was the establishment in 1982 of a moratorium on commercial whaling. With that one narrow vote by the International Whaling Commission, so hard fought by Greenpeace and other environmental organisations, the public believed that the slaughter of the world’s largest mammal was at an end. Or was it?

Delhi Durbar
All the wrong men
T
he Bharatiya Janata Party seems to have some problem or the other with its members. A person who held important positions in the party like Office Secretary and Cultural Cell in-charge has suddenly been made persona non-grata.

  • The bill, please

  • So much for PR

  • ‘Sindhu’ made Ladakhi

From the pages of

Editorial cartoon by Rajinder Puri


 REFLECTIONS


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Make it uniform
Address Kalam’s concerns

The Prevention of Disqualification (Amendment) Bill, 2006, popularly known as the Office of Profit Bill, which President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has returned to Parliament for reconsideration has evoked mixed reaction. If there was some confusion among certain sections, it was mainly because of the misinterpretation of Mr Kalam’s observations on the legislation’s uniform applicability at the Centre and in the states. Reports quoting Rashtrapati Bhavan sources should help dispel doubts on what the President actually meant while returning the Bill. It has now been pointed out that the President never expected Parliament to legislate for the states which have their due place in the constitutional scheme. All that he wanted was a uniform (and not selective or random) use of the exemption clause in the light of the settled interpretation of Article 102 of the Constitution.

The President wanted Parliament to enact a law that would be just, fair and reasonable and applicable to all the states and Union Territories in a comprehensive and transparent manner. This newspaper, too, has been taking the same line ever since the controversy arose over the issue. This suggestion has a lot to commend itself. For instance, instead of singling out the post of wakf board chief of West Bengal for exemption, the Bill could cover similar posts in all the states. The same is the case with state development board or film corporation chiefs. Why confine the legislation to those posts in West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh?

The stakes are indeed high for parliamentarians because petitions for disqualification are pending before the Election Commission against 46 MPs belonging to the Congress, the Left and other parties and over 200 MLAs in various states. In Punjab, petitions have been filed against Chief Minister Amarinder Singh and 37 legislators. As the fear of disqualification looms large over these MPs and MLAs, Parliament would do well to address President Kalam’s queries appropriately and make the legislation uniform and comprehensive. While the need to amend the 1959 law cannot per se be disputed, the President’s suggestion for reconsideration should be viewed in the right spirit for the simple reason that Parliament cannot rush through an important Bill drafted in a partial and opaque manner. 

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Sex scandal
All the guilty must be punished

The victims of the Srinagar sex scandal must be feeling a little relieved with the arrest of one of the key accused, a Deputy Superintendent of Police. The arrest has been made primarily because of the pressure from the Jammu and Kashmir High Court on the CBI to show results. Otherwise, the Central investigating agency had been going slow obviously because many highly placed persons’ names had figured in the scandal. Among those facing allegations are former ministers, legislators, senior officers of the police and security forces and businessmen. This was one of the reasons why it led to so much public outcry in the Valley.

The biggest sex scandal to rock the Valley could have been suppressed as in the past but for the constant media focus, protests by the outraged citizens and the activism shown by the High Court. The kingpin, Sabeena, is so well connected that no one could have dared to touch her or her associates.

In fact, Sabeena was undisturbed till the second week of March when a group of elders from the Habba Kadal locality in Srinagar, from where she had been operating, approached the police with a compact disc (CD) of a pornographic film depicting the rape of a 15-year-old girl of the area. The police did register a case and held an enquiry, but nothing beyond that happened. The case was dismissed as a “routine crime”. However, the investigating police officer had prepared a confidential report mentioning the names of politicians and officers of the police and security agencies. The situation changed altogether after the media exposed the scandal with the High Court taking cognizance of this. The court is closely monitoring all the developments concerning the racket. Whatever problems that exist in the investigation of the case should be sorted out amicably. The authorities concerned should ensure that the guilty are punished irrespective of the positions they hold. 

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Illegal turns legal
Punjab out to emulate Delhi

Election time is the time for politicians to remember that they have some voters to take care of, whom they had neglected during the past four years or so. Every neta worth his gaddi is on his best behaviour. Many demands hanging fire for long are approved pronto. Nothing wrong with that if the voter gets what was his right all along. But when all this is sought to be done through patently wrong undertakings, it is time for every right-thinking citizen to wake up and take notice. Punjab is nowadays in an election mode and has been showering largesse on various sections. But it has gone overboard while extending this magnanimity to regularising illegal constructions in the vicinity of Chandigarh. This rip-off is in the same league as a similar move by the Centre to circumvent the judicial order to remove illegal constructions in Delhi. Punjab is also in the process of regularising 20,000 such constructions around Chandigarh, in the hope that this move will pay rich electoral dividends.

For its narrow gains, the government is out to gift land worth crores of rupees to people who defied the law of the land brazenly. What message this will send to the general public is obvious: that rules are for the fools and those who break these are bound to be rewarded sooner or later. If all goes well, we will have illegal houses mushrooming near all towns and cities of Punjab. In fact, this is already happening, thanks to the similar gestures towards other encroachers in the past.

All this is not being done only to procure votes. There is another vested interest as well. Many of these houses belong to influential politicians and bureaucrats. They were the ones who should have been more circumspect about breaking the law, but they were the pioneers in making faces at it. Instead of meting out exemplary punishment to them, the government is trying to oblige them all through this bounty. Only an alert judiciary and a public outcry can stop this illegality in its tracks. 

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Thought for the day

Little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape. — A proverb

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Migration muddle
European intolerance on the rise
by S. Nihal Singh

Spain is battling with a problem other European Union countries have been experiencing in the past: how to cope with a flood of refugees from Africa? The Spanish Canary Islands are only 900 miles from Senegal and floods of refugees keep coming — 7,000 arrived on the islands this year, compared to 4,700 in the whole of last year.

The local authorities in the Canary Islands posted an emergency and said they were unable to cope with the flood. The European Union said it would deploy boats, planes and rapid reaction teams to reach the Canaries, a pleasure resort for the rich. The irony is that although the EU promised operational support, its members could not agree to return refugees safely to a list of countries.

A separate deal Spain made with Senegal to repatriate refugees came unstuck because Dakar alleged the refugees were mistreated during their journeys home. Senegal wants assistance, particularly for modernising irrigation systems, to rehabilitate the young and jobless. Spanish officials concede the principle of the European Union helping Africa, but their immediate problem is to cope with the refugees.

African migrants destroy their papers because under Spanish law they cannot be detained for more than 40 days and must then be released. Once they are set free, they have the option of driving into any European Union country that participates in the common visa arrangement. There is no common EU policy on migration.

The Spanish predicament is only the latest problem the European Union has been confronting in recent times. There are two aspects to it: the question of assimilating the ethnic minorities who live in the EU countries and new waves of illegal migrants who arrive through various, often devious, ways. Countries with significant ethnic minorities such as Britain, France and Germany have been groping for a solution. On the other hand, the new illegal refugees present their own set of problems, as the Spanish authorities are discovering.

The mood in Europe is distinctly unwelcoming to both categories of migrants. Britain, which sought to practise multiculturalism, was shocked by the train bombings carried out by home-grown terrorists originating from Pakistan and is no longer as assured as it was in dealing with people of different faiths and races. Spain had its rash of devastating train bombings ascribed to Al-Qaeda. The Netherlands has swung wildly from tolerance to intolerance of minorities after the murder of the filmmaker Theo van Gogh by a Dutch of Moroccan origin and the storm over Hirsi Ali’s wrong declarations to obtain Dutch citizenship.

In Germany, the home of the largest Turkish population in Europe, racial prejudice has reached alarming proportions in the former East Germany in particular, which has witnessed the murder of dark-skinned people by gangs of rampaging neo-Nazis. The malaise has even spread to Russia, with a number of fatal attacks on ethnic minorities in St. Petersburg in particular. It would seem that there is greater intolerance of “the other” in the age of globalisation than it was in more leisurely times.

There are several strands to the problem. Taking the settled minorities in Europe, the tendency of the host countries to leave the newcomers to their own devices has only served to encourage the formation of ghettoes. Obviously, the issue came to a head because of the waves of terrorism indulged in by those claiming to be pious Muslims. But the fault-lines existed before Nine Eleven and neither British multiculturalism nor the French policy of building suburban high-rises that have degraded over the decades has provided the answer. After last November’s suburban riots, France has again witnessed the fury of the unassimilated and unemployed youth of African and Arab origin.

A second aspect of the rising European intolerance of migrants lies in the state of the economy. The European Union has been passing through a lean period compared to its phenomenal prosperity and growth in post-war decades. It is human nature to scapegoat “the other” in relatively hard times. And terrorist acts have played into the hands of those looking for a short-cut to electoral power.

There is still a substantial body of opinion in Europe that remains true to the liberal spirit of tolerance, but their voices are being drowned in the cacophony of those exploiting the fear of the terrorist and the migrant to seek political rewards. In competitive politics, an anti-migrant stand sells, as is exemplified most starkly in the change that has come about in the Netherlands, which has achieved the distinction of being perhaps the most illiberal country on the European continent today.

The tragedy is that the European Union, which could have been a beacon of hope in framing a sensible policy on migration, is hobbled by members’ disunity. Apart from the British, who consider immigration matters as their exclusive domain, each member has its own sensitivities. All have not subscribed to even the sensible Schengen common visa arrangement. Hence the Spanish plea for help remains unheeded in its essence.

Migration from less well-off countries to those with greater wealth and opportunities follows its own course, whether the migration is from Mexico to the United States or Bangladesh to India or from Africa to Europe. Instead of building walls and fences, the solution lies in understanding the urge and seeking to mitigate the circumstances in the countries from which people migrate. For North Africa in particular, Europe is the obvious attraction.

There was a time, as European economies were speeding up, when the welcome mat was spread out for the “guest workers”. The European illusion was that once their economies were built and the migrant workers were not required, they would pack their bags and leave. The European mistake was in mishandling the problems of assimilation, with the Dutch now retorting with draconian language and other tests before granting new citizenship, and the British are not too far behind in contemplating loyalty tests.

Europe has, indeed, a long way to go in resolving the problem of migrants. In the meantime, each country in the European Union will seek to muddle through as best it can. An unfortunate consequence of this muddle is that migrants will give strength to the parties of the right across the continent and on the British Isles.

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A triple jubilee of sorts
by Baljit Malik

IT’s my 60th year in Kasauli, 50th as a freebooter journalist, 25th as a contributor to The Tribune. Kasauli has changed, yet it hasn’t, hardly bothering to look over its shoulder.

Our social divide remains as of old. There are those who live on the Upper and Lower Mall; service officers billeted in cottage style bungalows left by the Brits, or in ugly flats built by the MES post-Independence, and there are those who live cheek by jowl along and in the Market and Aradh bazaars. The traders, salaried employees and karamcharis (some of them lakh and crorepatis) have not a single inch of recreational space between them. This is the desi part of this cantonment hill station.

The burra sahibs (civil and military), the “Kaale Angrez” and a few well-connected empowered desis have their club, a sprawling facility with its under-used tennis courts, children’s park, a pathetic “putting green” (a la golf) that is really a patch of tattered synthetic grass matting laid out on a disused tennis court.

Suggestions have been made, proposals submitted that the club open its sporting area on a controlled basis to Kasauli’s resident youth. The answer, as always, is a stiff upper lip, or how can we let these bloody desi types into our exclusive, reserved drinking, gambling and socialising acres and built-up square feet. More meat here for the debate on reservations!

So, this is how Kasauli has not changed much from colonial to neo-colonial. Now, a new post-neo-colonial wired and weird globalised species has arrived here. This species has managed to manipulate the IAF, bureaucrats and politicians to violate, alter and improvise rules and regulations in order to build a page 3 ghetto in the security area of the IAF station. It’s a ghetto that has to be seen to be believed. Thirteen houses of heavy concrete and steel, of a monotonously uniform urban design with bathroom looking into bathroom... situated on a fragile hill subject to reverse and forward seismic thrusts. And, with this species, we now have perimeters cordoned off with barbed wire, guarded over by scruffy security guards draped in paramilitary style uniforms. Until not long ago, Kasauli was free of even an inch of barbed wire.

Non-conformistly out of tune with the changing times, in our haven Red Combe, we have no lock, no key, no barbed wire, no computer...yet plenty of unrecognised credo of one sort or another. An enclave out of bounds from the reserved category of socially secessionist, well endowed castes and classes to be found in the club and force’s messes.

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Defence management crisis
Don’t compromise on CDS, procurement
by Premvir Das

While discussing the recent book on the Kargil War authored by the former Army Chief, General VP Malik, a well known analyst argued in this newspaper that victory was achieved because of close coordination between the Army and the Air Force through the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC).

He went on to say that this proved that there was nothing wrong with the existing system and that, therefore, the position taken by the Group of Ministers (GOM) in 2000, that the COSC had failed throughout its existence to agree on issues of substantive military importance or to render appropriate advice on them to the government, was based on motivated inputs by those who were predetermined that there should be a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).

This is a surprisingly naïve proposition. Let us first look at the composition of the GOM. It comprised Deputy Prime Minister LK Advani, Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh, himself the author of a book arguing the creation of a CDS in view of serious weaknesses in the existing system, Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha and Defence Minister George Fernandes. No one can argue that these people were some ignoramuses who happily swallowed whatever was fed to them by their ‘advisers’. National Security Adviser Brajesh Misra assisted them in their deliberations. He is no greenhorn either. To suggest that a group of this experience just went along with whatever was put before them defies belief.

Let us then look at the ‘advisers’. Presumably, the reference is to the Task Force constituted by the GOM on higher Defence Management. Its chairman was Arun Singh, Minister of State for Defence in the Rajiv Gandhi government. Not even his severest detractors will contest his deep knowledge and hands on experience of military matters and their political interface. He was assisted by high ranking civil and military officers in the Task Force and by dozens of others who came to dispose before it including 16 former Chiefs and 4 erstwhile Defence Secretaries.

When the GOM considered the report of this group, it was assisted by three chairmen of other task forces dealing with security affairs, GC Saxena, Governor of Jammu and Kashmir and former head of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) and Security Adviser to Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, NN Vohra, former Defence and Home Secretary and Secretary to Prime Minister IK Gujral and Madhav Godbole, former Home Secretary.

The fact is that for the first time in India’s independent history, we were able to take a critical look at ourselves and focus on the core weaknesses rather than crow about superficial strengths. Mere camaraderie and bonhomie is not good enough. There has to be an integrated approach to operations and planning which is possible only under a CDS.

Force development is another area that requires joint consideration and decision making. Only then can priorities of different capabilities in each wing of the armed forces be evaluated. The Services have never planned jointly. When an effort was made to do so by the Director General of Defence Planning (DGDPS) constituted in 1985, the COSC directed that he was only to ‘compile’ the plan by adding up what the individual Services projected to him. This stipulation continues till date.

Selecting sportsmen to represent the Services in various games is also a COSC function and one which they have, indeed, performed quite well. But surely, this is not what the GOM was concerned with. So, when they said that there must be a CDS, they did so with good reason. Almost all major nations worldwide now follow this system and for very good reasons. But for some strange reason, the Indian political leadership has been unable to come to terms with the concept.

An Integrated Defence Staff is now in place comprising four Lieutenant Generals, sixteen Major Generals and dozens of Brigadiers and Colonels but in effect, they are not doing much more than what the one Lieutenant General and three Major Generals of the DGDPS were doing earlier. The structure is just a toothless tiger and a waste of money, because the same COSC, found unsuitable by the GOM for its inability to confront substantive issues, continues at its head.

Another issue is the petition filed in the High Court of Delhi by an NGO headed by a former Navy Chief in regard to some alleged bribes having been paid in the deal for Scorpene submarines to be built in India. Apparently, some articles published in a weekly newsmagazine provide the ‘evidence’. The petition calls for investigation of the negotiation process and cancellation of the contract.

Now, no one can dispute the need for honesty in defence contracts and, if there is some credible evidence, an investigation, and subsequent prosecution of the guilty people if necessary, is certainly called for. But, hearsay and rumours cannot be the basis for such action. One should be serious in analyzing the effect of cancellation of defence contracts, as they impact on national security.

In 1987, based on one telegram from the Embassy in Bonn which stated that HDW had, possibly, paid a commission in the contract for building four submarines, two in German yards and two in India, followed by ongoing indigenous production of improved versions, a series of measures were taken which halted construction at Mazagon Docks.

Considerable infrastructure, created in the shipyard at great cost, has been allowed to lie unused for two decades. At least ten submarines would have been built in this period. As for the allegations, nothing came of them, no credible evidence could be found in all these years and the case had to be closed. Surely, it will be criminal to repeat the same story with the Scorpenes. By now, India would have become one of the six countries worldwide capable of designing and building the most modern submarines, not just assembling them. The HDW case prevented this for two decades; the Scorpenes issue, if not handled firmly, might put the final nail in the coffin. Not even the most hostile adversary could have done to our security preparedness what we have done to ourselves, and continue to do.

*****

The writer was a member of the Task Force on Higher Defence Management

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It’s time to save the whales–again
by Joshua Reichert

One of the most heralded victories of the global environmental movement was the establishment in 1982 of a moratorium on commercial whaling. With that one narrow vote by the International Whaling Commission, so hard fought by Greenpeace and other environmental organisations, the public believed that the slaughter of the world’s largest mammal was at an end. Or was it?

For nearly 10 years after the whaling ban went into effect in 1985, there was a steady drop in the number of whales being killed each year, reaching a low of 731 in 1994. Since then, however, the numbers have steadily risen. In 2005, about 1,300 whales were killed. The number is expected to exceed 2,100 this year.

A loophole in the agreement permits countries to kill whales “for purposes of scientific research.” In addition, nations that object to the provisions of the whaling moratorium, even those that are members of the IWC, are not bound by its restrictions.

Norway and Japan are responsible for the vast majority of whales killed annually. Norway, which objects to the moratorium on commercial whaling, is expected to kill 1,052 minke whales this year, the highest number in two decades. Japan has announced its intentions to kill more than 1,100 minke, fin and humpback whales in about a year, all under the guise of “scientific whaling.”

Both Japan and Norway have consistently resisted international opposition to their killing of whales. Moreover, Japan methodically has sought to overturn the whaling moratorium nearly from the time it was instituted, has grossly abused the provision that allows for scientific whaling and even has gone so far as to introduce whale meat into hundreds of school lunch programs nationwide in an effort to encourage more of Japan’s young people to cultivate a taste for whale meat, a taste that has virtually disappeared among Japanese under 60 years old.

Since 1998, Japan has systematically attempted to gain a majority of pro-whaling votes on the IWC. Ten years ago, there were 35 nations that belonged to the IWC, with roughly two-thirds opposed to whaling.

But in recent years, Japan has sought to alter this balance by increasing the number of countries on the commission that support the commercial killing of whales. Since 1998, it is estimated that through the provision of multimillion-dollar aid packages, Japan has succeeded in bringing 19 new countries into the IWC, most with no tradition of whaling.

When the IWC meets this month in the West Indian nation of St. Kitts and Nevis, it is expected that Japan will command a majority of votes for the first time since the whaling moratorium was put into place. While a simple voting majority is not sufficient to overturn the moratorium (a supermajority of 75 percent is needed), it is expected that Japan will seek to establish secret voting procedures, abolish the sanctuary for whales in the southern oceans, dismantle the IWC’s conservation committee, expand support for “scientific whaling” and generally loosen restrictions on killing whales.

Once, the world rallied to stop the wholesale slaughter of whales, not because whale watching was good business or because we felt that their presence was essential for survival, but because we believed that whales should be allowed to live in the world’s oceans, that their presence somehow enhanced our own, that we had done them great harm and that we should stop.

Now it is time to save them, again.

— By arrangement with LA Times-Washington Post

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Delhi Durbar
All the wrong men

The Bharatiya Janata Party seems to have some problem or the other with its members. A person who held important positions in the party like Office Secretary and Cultural Cell in-charge has suddenly been made persona non-grata.

Close to former President L K Advani, he was appointed to the Governing body of the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) during the NDA regime. He used his clout to become the Editor of the ICCR magazine replacing well known Hindi author and poet K L Nandan. When the NDA government lost the 2004 Lok Sabha polls, it was suggested to him politely to put in his papers but he chose not to. Now that his term is coming to an end at the ICCR, he has been desperately trying to take over the prestigious Bharat Bhavan in Madhya Pradesh, and was hoping till last week that the BJP government in Bhopal would oblige him. But his request has been turned down, due to alleged misdeeds while at ICCR.

The bill, please

In April, Railway Minister Lalu Yadav’s daughter got married and a wedding reception was held at the ITDC owned Hotel Ashok. A senior Northern Railway officer, posted at the New Delhi station, was Yadav’s Man Friday. Hotel Ashok was told that preparations should be made for 1000 guests; but then, when the plates were counted, the number exceeded the figure by three times. The Minister’s Man Friday is insisting that he does not know how the figure went up, and that payment will only be made for 1000 guests. The hotel is believed to be at a loss as to how to resolve the dispute.

So much for PR

Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav’s wilful and undemocratic style of functioning is beginning to affect the smooth functioning of the Directorate of Public Relations, Ministry of Railways. During two recent tours by the Minister to Shimla and Kapurthala, the Director Public Relations was out of the loop. On his visit to the Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala, a press party comprising more than 20 journalists from the national Capital accompanied the minister but the selection of invitees was not done by the DPR. It is reported to have been done by his media consultant. This is a departure from the standard practice where the DPR seeks approval of the Chairman Railway Board for taking a press party. The buzz in Rail Bhawan is that the DPR has been sidelined by parallel media authorities.

‘Sindhu’ made Ladakhi

After “de-saffronising” history text books, the UPA government seems to be taking a close look at other cases where it feels the baggage of NDA’s cultural agenda continues. The Sindhu Darshan festival, which was started during the NDA’s rule and turned into a gala event, has been downsized and renamed Ladakh Singhey-Khabab Spring Festival. Though the renaming was actually done by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), tourism officials from Ladakh indicated that it was done at the bidding of the Centre, which funds the three-day June festival. While the move to rename the festival was justified by LAHDC Chairman Chering Dorjay, as a step to meet local sentiments, Pinto Narboo, MLA, said the original name was better as it helped connect the festival to people in other parts of the world.

*****

Contributed by Satish Misra, Tripti Nath and Prashant Sood

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From the pages of

May 14, 1951

RESERVAtion OF SEATS

Prime Minister Nehru has introduced a Constitution Amending Bill which seeks to amend 10 articles and add two new articles and one schedule. Article 15 is sought to be amended to enable a State to make suitable provisions for the educations, social or economic advancement of the backward classes. Reservation of seats in the educational institutions on a communal basis is a reprehensible practice and the Government has made no attempt to amend Article 29 which deals with admission to educational institutions, but if we are sincere in our desire to ameliorate the conditions of the backward classes like the Scheduled Castes and Tribes we must provide them with proper educational, social, economic and other facilities so that they may come up to the level of the other sections of the community.

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.Every living faith must have within itself the power of rejuvenation if it is to live. Just as the body cannot exist without blood, so the soul needs matchless and pure strength of faith.

— Mahatma Gandhi

They alone are truly detached who are attached to the name of God and see the truest of the true at all times and in all things.

— Guru Nanak

He alone is truly detached who subdues the self.

— Guru Nanak

Let my words be honeyed to all who hear.

—The Upanishadas

A game of pleasure ought to be played for pleasure alone. If it is used as a serious challenge, it is the easiest way to lose one’s very hard earned wealth and kingdom.

—The Mahabharata

When the Guest is being searched for, it is the intensity of the longing for the Guest that does the trick.

— Kabir

The wise seek to control their emotions and passions. They control their bodies, control their tongues, control their minds. Leaving sins behind, they practice virtues with their bodies, tongues and minds.

—The Buddha

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