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THE TRIBUNE SPECIALS
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Editorials | Article | Middle | Oped | Reflections

EDITORIALS

Victory at NAM
India’s viewpoint on terrorism upheld
I
NDIA, a victim of cross-border terrorism for a long time, has been of the view that those indulging in this inhuman activity on any pretext deserve no sympathy. No civilised nation should extend any kind of support to the outfits killing innocent people irrespective of their causes.

Nipped in the bud
Daughters are a blessing, not a curse

F
EMALE foeticide is an evil to which almost no village in Punjab is a total stranger. But this dark secret has been kept under wraps for far too long. Only now that the sex ratio has gone horribly wrong is the country waking up to its sheer inhumanity. A series of stories published by this newspaper recently brings out the full dimension of the curse in stark relief. Because of the widespread desire for a male issue, girls in their thousands have been sacrificed and continue to be sacrificed. 



 

 

EARLIER STORIES

Handshake in Havana
September 18, 2006
War on terror
September 17, 2006
The minister must go
September 16, 2006
Munda’s exit
September 15, 2006
Verdict No. 1
September 14, 2006
Lucky escape
September 13, 2006
Pact with Taliban
September 12, 2006
Gandhi to Osama
September 11, 2006
Commercialisation of water must stop: Pandey
September 10, 2006
Courting disaster
September 9, 2006


WB-IMF certificate
Aim at growth with good governance
T
HOUGH the annual meetings of the World Bank and the IMF no longer evoke the kind of interest they once did, it is imperative to take note of their India-specific observations. The IMF’s 8.3 per cent growth projection for India is slightly higher than that of the RBI.
ARTICLE

No longer a House of States
In the interest of politicians
by Punyapriya Dasgupta
T
HE Supreme Court has been seeing the “basic structure” of the Constitution of India as sacrosanct and, therefore, not open to tampering or tinkering. Yet it is not clear which of the 444 articles and 12 schedules that make the world’s longest sovereign constitution are to be so treated.

 
MIDDLE

Yet another Tribune
by Darshan Singh Maini
I
GUESS, few among the millions of the Tribune readers would know that there was a paper of that name published in New York in the 19th Century. Henry James, one of the greatest American novelists, used to write for it weekly reports when as a young writer, he was living in Paris for a short period.



OPED

China: boom or bust?
by S.P. Seth

I
N a recent forum on Australian television, the participants debated if China was headed for boom or bust. China’s continued economic growth of around 10 per cent is now regarded as a given by many commentators around the world. And with it the continued monopoly power of the Communist Party, credited with China’s economic miracle.

Lebanon: a battlefield for political influence
by Megan K. Stack
T
HE rush to rebuild this war-crushed country has gotten tangled up with a high-stakes sectarian competition, as Sunni Arab governments in the region race against Shiite Iran and its ally Hezbollah to prove political clout and capture grass-roots loyalty, analysts say.

DELHI DURBAR
President gets mail
President A.P.J. Abdul Kalaam’s office website (www.presidentofindia.nic.in) has recorded an amazing number of hits. In analysing the actual hit position, the President’s Secretariat observed that the website had got the highest number of 127 lakh hits in August.

  • Race for VC’s post

  • Lalu’s Ranchi operation

  • A step ahead of law


From the pages of

 
 REFLECTIONS

 

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Victory at NAM
India’s viewpoint on terrorism upheld

INDIA, a victim of cross-border terrorism for a long time, has been of the view that those indulging in this inhuman activity on any pretext deserve no sympathy. No civilised nation should extend any kind of support to the outfits killing innocent people irrespective of their causes. This viewpoint was upheld during the nonaligned movement’s two-day meeting in Havana, the Cuban capital, that concluded on Sunday. The Havana Declaration wants all countries to contribute to the fight against the menace. Urging every member of the international community to refrain from extending political, diplomatic, moral or material support to terrorist groups appears to be indirectly hinting at Pakistan’s backing to the Kashmir-centric terrorist groups active in India for over two decades.

As if this was not enough, the NAM declaration specifically mentioned the Taliban, which has been regrouping in the southern and eastern parts of Afghanistan for some time because of clandestine outside support, a hint at Pakistan. This was also an indirect disapproval of the agreement reached recently between Pakistan and the remnants of the Taliban, providing a sanctuary to the extremists in the Waziristan area bordering Afghanistan. India had been pointing out the consequences of aiding and abetting terrorism by giving it the clock of a “fight for self-determination”, but few world capitals took it as seriously as they ought to have. The situation changed only after 9/11. The continuing fight against terrorism is, however, yet to bring about the desired results. The NAM declaration rightly wants the international community to fulfil its humanitarian obligations in this regard.

Among the other significant issues discussed at the NAM meeting was the right of a sovereign country to produce nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Nuclear energy has its definite advantages over the conventional sources of power. The only problem is that the technology used in the production of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes can also help in making nuclear weapons. This factor cannot be ignored. But there are international laws to prevent the misuse of nuclear technology. 

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Nipped in the bud
Daughters are a blessing, not a curse

FEMALE foeticide is an evil to which almost no village in Punjab is a total stranger. But this dark secret has been kept under wraps for far too long. Only now that the sex ratio has gone horribly wrong is the country waking up to its sheer inhumanity. A series of stories published by this newspaper recently brings out the full dimension of the curse in stark relief. Because of the widespread desire for a male issue, girls in their thousands have been sacrificed and continue to be sacrificed. Time for counselling is well past. Now it is time to wield the stick.

What must be drummed into the mind of the baby killers is that it is not just a social evil but also an extremely serious crime. Pregnancy is something which cannot be really hidden. Similarly, female foeticide or infanticide also cannot be done in total secrecy. So, there is need to go after not only the parents but also those who conspire with them to sniff out a life before it even begins. Somehow, law-enforcement agencies have been found to be totally inadequate to counter this menace. Take the sex determination test itself. It is a stiffly punishable crime. Yet, it goes on because of the collusion or carelessness of officials. Unless the fear of the law is ingrained in the public mind, the scourge cannot be eliminated.

At the same time, we must also go deep into the reasons for this fetish for a male issue. In many cases, it is because the parents are very insecure about the plight of their daughters. Once they know that the girls will not have to lead the lives of galley slaves, like their mothers and grandmothers in the past, perhaps the social pressure of begetting only male heirs will lessen. Till that stage arrives, it is necessary to turn the heat on violators so much that they do not dare to cast an evil glance at a female child.

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WB-IMF certificate
Aim at growth with good governance

THOUGH the annual meetings of the World Bank and the IMF no longer evoke the kind of interest they once did, it is imperative to take note of their India-specific observations. The IMF’s 8.3 per cent growth projection for India is slightly higher than that of the RBI. What deserves special attention is its comment on the mushrooming of the special economic zones in the country. The tax incentives being given to the units in the SEZs may affect industrial activity elsewhere in the country. The government will have to ensure that the SEZs do not end up as land-grab paper projects trying to cash in on the real estate boom. This is not to undermine the importance of having such clusters of industry to achieve the economies of scale as has been done by China.

A World Bank survey of 213 countries places India at the 47th rank in government effectiveness as measured by red tape, bureaucracy and political stability. While red tape is a perennial problem, stability is hardly an issue here. One need not take such rankings too seriously, but these do reflect how some of those who shape world opinion view the country. There is no denying the fact that reforms run the risk of tripping unless corruption is curbed and the rule of law enforced in the country.

The IMF proposes to increase certain members’ quota of votes through reforms, which exclude India but include China, Mexico, South Korea and Turkey. This has led India to mobilise Brazil, Argentina and Egypt in its support. India has questioned the basis for calculating the quota and suggested its own formula. Only the voting will decide the fate of IMF Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato’s reforms. Since the US supports Mr Rato’s initiative, its success is assured.

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Thought for the day

When domestic servants are treated as human beings it is not worthwhile to keep them. 
— George Bernard Shaw

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No longer a House of States
In the interest of politicians
by Punyapriya Dasgupta

THE Supreme Court has been seeing the “basic structure” of the Constitution of India as sacrosanct and, therefore, not open to tampering or tinkering. Yet it is not clear which of the 444 articles and 12 schedules that make the world’s longest sovereign constitution are to be so treated.

The judgement in the Keshavananda Bharati case 33 years ago introduced the concept of the basic structure. The majority of the 13 judges signed a summary statement asserting the inviolability of the basic structure created by the preambular ideals of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity in a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic. But this was rather abstract.

Many of the judges, therefore, thought it necessary to point to the features of the edifice Parliament should not try to dismantle or alter. They appended to the court’s verdict four separate lists without quite reconciling them. Chief Justice Sikri’s list, supported by some other judges, had five points and among them a republican and democratic form of government and the federal character of the Constitution.

Questions had to arise some day. Two journalists and former MPs, Kuldip Nayyar and Inderjit, went to the Supreme Court and contended, through their counsels, Rajendra Sachar and Fali Nariman, that the abrogation of the requirements of normal residence in a state and of secret voting for Rajya Sabha elections by Parliament’s amendment of the Representation of People’s Act were unacceptable assaults on the basic structure of the Constitution and should, therefore, be set aside and the status quo ante restored.

A five-judge Bench headed by Chief Justice Sabharwal turned down both pleas last month. According to this verdict, India’s federal system was not related to territory and since the secret balloting had become a source of corruption it deserved to be replaced by an open expression of choice. This came as a surprise to many.

The very first article of the Constitution says that “the territory of India shall comprise (a) the territories of the states. . .” and “the states and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.” The Rajya Sabha or the Council of states is a house of representatives of the states as distinct from the Lok Sabha or the House of the People of India. Some may not, therefore, be able to see the logic behind the view that the Indian federal structure is not territory-related. The Rajya Sabha has only 12 nominated members of all-India eminence and 238 representatives of the states elected by the respective Legislative Assemblies. The supplementary rule made by the Representation of People Act that the elected representatives of the states must normally be residents of their respective states was a legal reiteration of common sense and worked well for roughly half a century. Then began its bypassing with the help of fictions.

The political parties consensually encouraged it because some of their leaders and candidates had to be brought into Parliament even if they could not win Lok Sabha elections. Who could have imagined that Dr Manmohan Singh with his huge reputation for honesty and integrity would claim that he was normally a resident of Assam? Or that Pranab Mukherjee lived in Gujarat? But the Election Commission, with official India’s Upanishadic motto, “satyameva jayate”, emblazoned on its walls, chose to believe them. And the Government of India’s legal representatives argued in court that since the residence qualification had been massively flouted, this law deserved only to be scrapped.

If India decides some day to fight this kind of political debauchery, its legal machinery will have to grapple purposefully with the question whether a palpable lie can be converted into an acceptable truth by the seal of an undependable notary sold for a few rupees.

The replacing of secret voting in Rajya Sabha elections by open balloting will also remain controversial. It is true that the secret vote was being sold by unscrupulous MLAs for a price. But how will an open show of choice help? Earlier, individual legislators were taking lakhs under the table and cheating their party whips and now the political parties are charging crores for nominating moneybags for election to the Rajya Sabha wherever there is a vacancy. If a Surat businessman gets the single seat for Manipur in the Rajya Sabha he may remain unconcerned if and when the complaints of the Manipuri people against the application of draconian laws in the name of curbing separatism come up for discussion in that House. The Supreme Court also took this opportunity to repeat for the umpteenth time that the right to vote, though fundamental to democracy, is neither a fundamental right nor a common law right but simply a statutory right. True, the Constitution does not mention this right among the Fundamental Rights but the chapter on Parliament does require the House of the People or the Lok Sabha to be composed of 530 members “chosen by direct election.”

It is time a definitive clarification was made that direct elections could not happen without an unalterable right to vote. If something is seen as merely a Parliament-granted privilege there is an implied admission that it is not a fundamental right that cannot be withdrawn. The Supreme Court’s present position on this issue makes the right to vote tenuous. There is a clear warning already although it is in the other hemisphere. In Bill Clinton’s language, George Bush “stole” his first election in 2000 and this was made possible by the US Supreme Court’s strange verdict that the American people had no constitutional right to vote or insist that all the votes cast be counted.

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Yet another Tribune
by Darshan Singh Maini

I GUESS, few among the millions of the Tribune readers would know that there was a paper of that name published in New York in the 19th Century. Henry James, one of the greatest American novelists, used to write for it weekly reports when as a young writer, he was living in Paris for a short period.

James in those despatches described his visits to Rome where he visited the art galleries carrying paintings of great artists like Michaelangelo and other Renaissance painters. All this is described in detail in his autobiography. In fact, some of his novels too describe in detail the magic and power of those great works of art.

Which brings me back to the title of this “middle”. It’s perhaps not too well known that the word Tribune had a Roman origin. To quote Collins Dictionary, the word meant “a person or institution that upholds public rights”. The Roman Senators were thus described.

The Chandigarh Tribune which today has millions of readers in Northern India and abroad, was, as the Tribune readers know, started by Sardar Dayal Singh Majithia over a 100 years ago to voice the sentiments and thought of millions of Indian readers as against the British-supported Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. I think, at one time, Kipling, the well-known British novelist was associated with that paper.

After the Partition of India in 1947, the Lahore Tribune offices were shifted to Ambala Cantt before moving into its present place of publication — Chandigarh. I remember to have written some of the ‘middles’ and articles for the paper while it was still located in Ambala Cantt. Of these, that I can recall were entitled, Variations on Mangoes, A Tryst with Pandas and Pedlars, My Daughter Anita, Sparrow Speak etc.

Let me quote the concluding lines of Variations on Mangoes: “Whether you speak of the royal princess, or of the humble vassals, it’s truly a fruit which enjoys universality. Its lovers and admirers extend over time and space, their number is legion. Even the animal world pays it a distinct, considered homage. The canine muzzles and shouts may sniff at the sight of rotten grapes or maggoty apples, but the strong haunting smell of over-ripe mangoes cast away in the dustbins will bring them sniffing the bee-line to the source of attraction”.

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China: boom or bust?
by S.P. Seth

IN a recent forum on Australian television, the participants debated if China was headed for boom or bust. China’s continued economic growth of around 10 per cent is now regarded as a given by many commentators around the world. And with it the continued monopoly power of the Communist Party, credited with China’s economic miracle. It was, therefore, interesting to hear that a number of informed participants in the television audience were healthily skeptical of these claims.

The optimists believe that the 21st century belongs to China. It will increasingly become the engine of global economic growth, thus benefiting not only China but the world. They are not concerned about the disequilibrium between its politics and economics, with the Communist Party wielding monopoly power. In their view political pluralism would lead to social collapse; an argument generally made by the government in Beijing.

Of late, some China scholars and sympathisers have come to argue that economics has simply superceded politics in China. Economics, in their view, is the new politics, and hence all the fuss about political pluralism is now irrelevant.

The new history textbooks for high school students in Shanghai have virtually eliminated China’s political history from their course contents. According to a New York Times report from Beijing, Socialism has been reduced to a single, short chapter in the senior high school history course. Chinese communism before the economic reform that began in 1979 is covered in one sentence. The text mentions Mao Zedong only once - in a chapter on etiquette.

China’s history is now all about “economics, technology, social customs and globalisation.” In other words, an ancient civilization going back 5000 years has been given an abrupt new beginning from 1979-80 when economic reforms began.

At the level of global politics, China’s presumed emergence as a superpower is seen as a useful corrective to the United States’ unilateralism.

However, notwithstanding the rosy picture of China’s future painted by many, there are many danger signals discounting such a scenario. First of all, there is an assumption that China’s economic growth is likely to continue at 10 per cent or more for the foreseeable future. Which doesn’t seem sustainable.

The economy is over-heating, and might even be headed for a crash. In a recent survey published in Caijing magazine, 56 per cent of the Chinese economists saw signs of over heating, up from 15 per cent in April

But even if this weren’t the case, the economy’s fast pace is already creating all sorts of imbalances, economically and socially. There are sectoral imbalances resulting from the misallocation of financial resources. For instance, the state control of financial resources has resulted in a massive transfer of funds to the property sector leading to an over-heated real estate market. Indeed, there is a view that this is where the crash might occur, creating a ripple effect elsewhere.

Such inefficient use of financial resources in real estate and elsewhere has created the problem of non-performing loans. If China were an open political system, there would be a run on its banks because of the state of their finances. But it is still creating severe social problems.

For instance, its over-heated real estate market, funded by funds which might be productively used elsewhere, is starting to financially squeeze the urban middle class. And they are the mainstay of the Communist Party’s political base, having been the beneficiaries of the urban economic boom.

If they continue to be financially squeezed, not only in terms of real estate availability and affordability but also because of higher educational and health costs, the Communist Party’s middle class base is likely to erode thus widening the social base of those becoming frustrated and angry with China’s rulers.

The rural areas, which have been squeezed to support urban boom (a classic example is rural land seizures for urban industrial and housing development), are experiencing large scale, though fragmented, unrest with big and small incidents occurring all over.

Because there is not much developmental activity in the rural areas, there is a massive influx of rural labor to the cities. It is this easy availability of seemingly inexhaustible cheap labor that has enabled China to become the factory of the world. But it has its costs.

The country has become a volatile mix of imbalances like the urban-rural divide, social and cultural alienation of rural workers in an unwelcome and exploitative urban environment, wide income disparities with the country’s new rich and their patrons and partners from the Communist Party ranks acting like kings.

This is not all. China’s environmental degradation, with its rivers polluted/poisoned and cities with an overhang of industrial pollution (many people wearing face masks), is an example of disaster already happening. And it has even reached villages.

According to a recent AP report quoting Chinese state media and local officials, “At least 879 people from two Chinese villages [in the north-western province of Gansu] have been taken to hospital with lead poisoning, probably caused by airborne waste from a nearby lead factory.”

As for human rights, an example of their gross violations is the harvesting and sale of the body parts of dissidents, particularly the Falun Gong prisoners. The country’s judicial processes are a sham.

The latest example is the mock trial and sentencing to four years imprisonment of the blind activist, Chen Guangcheng, on the spurious charge of “organizing a mob to disturb traffic” and” damaging property. “His real” crime’ was to expose the practice of forced late-term abortions as part of China’s one-child-per-family policy.

Editorialising on this, Canada’s newspaper, the Gazette, wrote, “…This too is modern China. Profound injustice it turns out, can co-exist with dramatic economic progress.”

But for how long?

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Lebanon: a battlefield for political influence
by Megan K. Stack

THE rush to rebuild this war-crushed country has gotten tangled up with a high-stakes sectarian competition, as Sunni Arab governments in the region race against Shiite Iran and its ally Hezbollah to prove political clout and capture grass-roots loyalty, analysts say.

A steady stream of foreign delegations crunch over the rubble of the southern suburbs for photo opportunities; spokespeople churn out competing news releases; catty remarks fly between Hezbollah and the Lebanese government. Milk trucks on remote farm roads near the Israeli border proclaim that their boxed milk is a gift from the Saudi people; an Iranian flag emblazons water tanks in Beirut.

For decades, Lebanon has been an oft-abused host to its neighbors — a sun-warmed playground for the wealthy, but also a proxy battlefield for tensions that wash over the Middle East. In the current struggle, the region’s power players jockey not with guns, but with charity dollars, boxed food and showy displays of compassion.

The unmistakable sense of one-upmanship is a stark reminder of the panic that has gripped the region as the power of Shiite-ruled Iran swells. Animosities between Sunnis and Shiites stretch back into the origins of Islam, and have sharpened in recent years as the oil-rich Sunni Arab states of the Persian Gulf compete for influence against Iran. Sunni Arabs watched with increasing unease as Iranian influence spread among Shiites in post-invasion Iraq, and sat by nervously while Tehran, the Iranian capital, squared off against the West over its controversial nuclear program.

This summer’s war in Lebanon upped the ante even more. The perception that Hezbollah guerrillas drove Israel out of Lebanon has swept the coffee shops and streets of the Arab world. Hezbollah chief Sayed Hassan Nasrallah has been lionized, even among Sunni Arabs who previously might have viewed him with suspicion as a Shiite, analysts say.

As soon as the bombing stopped, Hezbollah foot soldiers waded into devastated streets and handed bundles of cash to families who’d lost their homes to Israeli bombing. Hezbollah has been coy about its ties to Iran, but the bulk of the cash is presumed to have come from Tehran.

The Lebanese government, dominated by Sunnis and Christians, has struggled to counteract the perception that Hezbollah is monopolizing the aid and reconstruction efforts.

Lebanon’s Shiites, believed to be the majority sect in Lebanon’s religious mosaic, have a long-standing tradition of taking care of their own, a habit developed in response to government neglect.

But now, the central government is working to show Shiites that their needs are taken seriously in Beirut. The outreach is driven in part, analysts say, by region-wide suspicions that Arab Shiites are secretly more loyal to their Iranian co-religionists than to their countrymen.

“Arabs are trying to get the Shias to integrate more in Lebanon and forget Iran,” said Hilal Khashan, a specialist in the region’s Shiites and professor at the American University of Beirut. “This is the challenge: How do you get Shias to pledge allegiance to the Lebanese state and forget foreign influence?”

By arrangement with LA Times-Washington Post

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DELHI DURBAR
President gets mail

President A.P.J. Abdul Kalaam’s office website (www.presidentofindia.nic.in) has recorded an amazing number of hits. In analysing the actual hit position, the President’s Secretariat observed that the website had got the highest number of 127 lakh hits in August.

The highest number of hits of 24 lakh on a single day was on September 12 which the NIC insists is the highest in a day for any government website.

The website contains the President’s messages, speeches, interaction with students and scientists and special sections on the garden and events as well as one for the visually impaired who can download the recordings of Dr Kalam’s voice.

Race for VC’s post

Higher Education Secretary Sudeep Banerjee, who is scheduled to retire later this month, is in the race for the position of Vice-Chancellor, IGNOU.

Sources in the ministry say while the HRD Minister is not averse to giving him a second term in office, the proposal found little support elsewhere.

Competing with Banerjee for the VC’s post are the Director, NIEPA and a former UGC Vice-Chairperson.

Hectic lobbying has begun for the office that Banerjee will soon demit. Among the contenders is the current Secretary, Elementary Education, Champak Chatterjee.

Lalu’s Ranchi operation

Why has RJD supremo and Union Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav been so active in striving for a change of guard in Jharkhand?

Single-handed, he ensured the ouster of the Arjun Munda government and made a reluctant Congress President Sonia Gandhi agree to his plan of installing an independent MLA Madhu Koda as the new Chief Minister.

A little bird tells us that the ongoing fodder scam case in which the money for the fodder was withdrawn from the Ranchi treasury is believed to be the real reason for Yadav’s hurry.

Since both in Patna as well as in Ranchi there were anti-RJD governments, Mr Yadav desparately wanted to have a favourable government in Ranchi.

A step ahead of law

The Supreme Court rightly summed up the state of politics in the country during the hearing of the petitions of three Jharkhand MLAs against disqualification notices by the Speaker.

When their counsel K K Venugopal pressed for an order to restrain the Speaker from taking a decision on the notices pleading that it would have serious consequences for the MLAs, a Bench of Justice K G Balakrishnan and Justice D K Jain in an observation, though made in a lighter vein, told the senior advocate that he should not be unnecessarily worry because the “legislators would find some way out as they are always a step ahead of the law”.

The subsequent events in Jharkhand proved the court right.

Contributed by S. Satyanarayanan, Smriti Kak Ramachandran, Satish Misra and S.S. Negi

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From the pages of

November 13, 1980

BLAMING THE OPPOSITION

LOUD denials by Mrs Gandhi that the Congress (I) is engaged in efforts to topple Governments in States where it is not in power will not necessarily convince her political opponents. The toppling game has been played before and can be played again if and when it suits the Prime Minister and her followers. West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir Kerala—the three main States at present governed by the Opposition—are uncomfortable reminders that the Congress (I)’s writ does not run in these important political and geographical areas. The local ruling parties have the habit of occasionally asserting themselves and refusing to fall in line with Central directives covering fields of joint responsibility. Mr Jyoti Basu’s Government in West Bengal, in particular, has come to be noted in Delhi for not wishing to be taken for granted. But even if the Prime Minister desires her own party to take over in Calcutta, Trivandrum and Srinagar, she knows that this objective cannot be achieved in the present conditions.

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Where the impulses of the body and mind no longer stir us, we find Heaven.
— The Upanishads

Even so we cannot describe Him. Indescribable in human words as He is.
— Guru Nanak

If a man commits a sin, let him realise. Let him repent. Let him not to do it again. The accumulation of evil can be very painful indeed.
— The Buddha

Priya (Pleasure) is sought for sensual gratification.
— The Upanishads

The flame of true repentance sear away all this sins. And the gateway to Heaven becomes visible to Man.
— The Upanishads

Shreya (beneficence) is sought for liberation.
— The Upanishads

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