Manage with trust
Amarinder Sandhu

Sociology of Organisation
by Jaspal Singh. Kanishka
Publisher, New Delhi. Pages 250. Rs 595.

From the perspective of a functionalist, organisations are viewed as systems made up of interdependent parts. A society cannot develop without organisation. The various parts of an organisation and the relationship between the parts contribute to the effective working of the system as a whole. Thus, in the fast globalising world, organisation is needed. Organisation is a concept and organisation as a socio-cultural phenomenon is multi-disciplinary. The world is changing and we cannot move toward without organization. The writer is emphatic about the fact that due of lack of trust, Indians cannot organise themselves and organizations cannot progress without trust and cooperation. Using Durkheim’s classification of societies into hordes, segmentary and organised societies, Singh stresses on the organisation of division of labour. He points out that in the evolutionary process of transition, those who carve`A0a niche for themselves survive, while the other perish. When a society is overorganised there is unnecessary monitoring and disciplining.

In an attempt to provide an understanding of the very process of organisation, the analysis of pre-capitalistic modes of organisation has been made with special reference to feudalism. The jagirdari during the rule of the Mughals was replaced by partiarchalism during the British rule, thus leading to a multi-epochal society

Interesting examples have been used by the writer to highlight certain concepts. Illustration of Dawod Ibrahim, the wolf and the lamb, the poor hawker’s daughter, the poultry farmer makes the concepts of pre-rational and rational capilalism clearer. A layman may use terms like association, clan, clique synonymously. The writer has made a clear distinction of organisations from mobalisation, association clans, cliques, factions and uses examples of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Nusli Wadia, Kamboh clans and Jat cliques to highlight his view point.

This book seeks to understand the problems faced by the employed and differentiates between the entrepreneur and the manager. Stating that the causes and consequences of unemployment are intertwined, the book also attempts to study the situation of unemployment using the cases of unemployed weavers of Dacca, textile weavers of Marienthal (Austria) and unemployed girls of Pathankot. Throwing light on the concepts of role, status, status inconsistency and social mobility; status symbols that go with acquiring status have also been dealt with.

Organisations exist in various combinations and structure, order and community formation form the components of organisation. Communication is an effective aspect of organisation. Miscommunication and rumours can wreck havoc in an organisation. Sociology of Organisation provides a gist of the organisational behaviour in India.

The size of the organisation, group cohesion, goals of the organisation, effectiveness and organisational norms are all responsible for the behaviour of an organisation. The existence of an organisation is not possible without control. Studying the formal and informal groups and type of control, the writer points that there is existence of authority where division of labour is present. The presence of authority leads to hierarchy. Singh states the "social milieu and organisational climate affect output "and proceeds on to say that "organisation is a cultural achievement."

This book offers the reader a peep into the types of organisational ethics and also touches upon the organisational politics in India. Listing the factor of mismanagement in India, it seeks to understand the organisational behaviour of universities, business, industry and trade unions in the Indian scenario.

In a nutshell, this text covers the classical, neo-classical and modern theories of organisation and also calls attention on the fact that an organisation needs to be reorganised to match the needs of time. Overall, it is a well-articulated text dealing with all concepts related to organisation. The examples and tables given will be of much use to the students and researchers alike.