Translation of literary works in local languages have bridged the gap between different cultures
Ashima Sehajpal

Yojna Rawat

Pratibha J.S. Sharma
LANGUAGE NO BAR: Pratibha J.S. Sharma

Karl Marx owes a big thanks to Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, Maxim Gorky needs to be grateful to Mararet Wettlin and so does several great writers to translators. Thanksgiving ceremonies would have added to deficit of manygovernments if these men were alive today. Anyways, on the behalf of all these great men, we thank these equally great men who translated Karl Marx's theories from German, Maxim Gorky's Russian and so on and helped the world grow wise.

How else the communists would have been able to rule West Bengal for three decades, if Karl Marx communist ideology weren't available in Indian languages? Or how else, we would have been able to read literature in different languages? "Translators have made it possible.

They bridge the gap between different countries and their cultures with translation of literary works in local languages," asserts Yojna Rawat, associate professor, University of Open Learning, who translated around 100 poems from French to Hindi. It was during her scholarship days in France that she started reading French poetry. "Emotions like love, fear, hatred, sympathy …have nothing to do with ethnicity, rather are common to human race.

I thought why language pose a barrier for people and keep them from reading wonderful literature of France, hence the translation began," adds Yojna. Works of poets of 20th century like Zacques Preverc, Jean Superville, Marie Claire…were chosen, with most of them being on subjects like, death, war, pain, nature (again the common factors of human life.)

Several short stories and some 20 books in Persian, Panchtantra stories in Sanskrit and love stories in Punjabi, Madhukar Arya, chairman, dept. of Persian and Urdu in the last three decades have made this literature accessible to all who know Hindi and English. It began with the translation of Zafarnama, the letter that Guru Gobind Singh wrote to Aurangzeb in Persian. Madhukar tells the rest, "I was in Iran for my research studies. My Iranian friends showed interest in reading Zafarnama and asked me to translate it in French from them.

I later thought why not also translate other famous literary or history works for people in India." Thus, from works of renowned poets, novelists, historians, to famous stories like Fox and a Crow and Monkey and a crocodile, he has translated. He then makes a vital point, "Translation doesn't just require one to know two languages. A contextually wrong usage of word can change the entire sense of a sentence or can jumble up the story so one needs to use the correct usage of words."

Anton Chekov fiction work was translated in Hindi and complied in two volumes, Kalakriti and Aaina. The language of translation could have been English too but Pankaj Malviya thought, "There are already numerous translations in English of Anton Chekov's literary works. I thought translating in Hindi would make Russian literature accessible to a larger number of students." Besides Chekov, he has translated works of others writers of the 19th and 20th century also, taking the number of translated short stories to 150.

An important factor while translating from any foreign language is, "To have the basic knowledge of any place's culture and traditions. Only then one will be able to explain characters as they are originally written,” he adds.

Pratibha J.S Sharma, associate professor of German, Punjabi University, Patiala, seconds the opinion, "I did a thorough study of German, Croation and Serbien cultures before taking on to translation of literature of these countries." Of all the work she has translated, the most outstanding is, "Transcending Sorrow Through Dhyana, a book by late Justice Surinder Singh, a semi autobiographical book, which I translated from English to German. He wrote how meditation helped him deal with cancer. I realised the subject had a universal appeal and it would render help to people suffering from cancer the world over." Translation thus once again fulfilling the basic aim: bridging people from different cultures.

Beyond the walls
Education Sensibele International Film Festival showcases alternative methods of education
Jasmine Singh

Stills from the documentaries to be shown at the festival
Stills from the documentaries to be shown at the festival

Often, we come across two kinds of people. The first, who crib about everything- milkman not coming on time, long queues at the petrol station, mismanagement of the road traffic, problematic computer terminals at the office. However, they are not ready to do anything about it. And the second, who crib, sulk, think, plan and then take a step forward to bring about a change, wherever they can.

Sheetal Singh Dhamija (managing director), Prabhjit Dhamija (creative director) and Capt Balwant Gurunay (chief coordinator) of Education Sensibele Inc are people from the second category. They talk nineteen to dozen about the lacunae in the education system, and at the same time, decided to do something about it. Result, an 'Educational Sensibele International Film Festival' starting November 16-19, which will be looking at providing alternative methods of education viz-a-viz the traditional method.

Says Prabhjit Dhamija, "We are not trying to make any statement with the 'Educational Sensibele International Film Festival'. Our endeavour is to contribute towards qualitative enhancement of education to make it a more fulfilling experience. We want the educationists to know that alternative methods exist, which can be incorporated in the already existing system to come to a middle path."

Educationa Sensibele International Film Festival', begins on November 16 and will be covering different schools in the tricity, with a grand finale at Tagore theatre on November 19. The seven films and documentaries on the final day are designed for educationists, principals, teachers and parents. Adds Capt Balwant, "We went through nearly 300 films, and short-listed the best ones. Thereafter, we edited them, so that were careful in sending the right message. We have brought films from Japan, Korea, Germany, China, Ladakh."

Not all hope is lost, for the trio sees that some schools are ready to experiment with education style, if only they can sustain it. Offers Sheetal, "We need to bring about a change at the root level. With the International film festival we want to break the conventional shell of education. There is a need to do something about the curriculum; and the textbooks we've been following religiously. We want to be the facilitators in this change, and make people realise that education is more than classrooms." The group is all set to make it an annual feature. Says Prabhjit, "We plan to do panel discussions and also make movies on education in India next year."

Take on terror
Bollywood actors say Kurbaan has global terrorism theme

Main tere kurbaan Actors Kareena Kapoor and Saif Ali Khan at a promotional event for their upcoming movie Kurbaan in Gurgaon on Saturday.
Main tere kurbaan Actors Kareena Kapoor and Saif Ali Khan at a promotional event for their upcoming movie Kurbaan in Gurgaon on Saturday. PTI Photo

Bollywood actors Saif Ali Khan and Kareena Kapoor have said the theme of their upcoming film Kurbaan (sacrifice in Urdu language) is global terrorism and its effect on society. The duo launched an online game of their film in Mumbai on Friday. Set in the United States, Kurbaan is a romantic thriller with terrorism as its milieu.

“There is no connection to whatever happened in Taj and Oberoi. This is a horrible thing that happened to our city. No one can forget the attacks in Parliament, London and New York. Global terrorism is a horrible thing that has become a part of our lives. So this film is about things like that. But it’s got nothing to do with 26/11 and I don’t think we would ever make a film to try and capitalise on something like the anniversary of something horrible,” said Saif Ali Khan the lead actor of this flick.

The film tries to illustrate the post bombing consequence on the daily lives of Muslim populace living in the US after September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Kareena Kapoor uttered that her role in the film is one of the most powerful one in her acting career.

“I am playing the role of a university professor in the film. Saif and we are professors in Delhi University. We fall in love and end up marrying each other. Then we leave for America and how the girl’s life changes there, that is what the story of Kurbaan is. I think its one of my most powerful roles in my career. I really hope that people will like it,” said Kareena Kapoor.

Directed by a debutant Rensil D’Silva, Kurbaan stars Saif Ali Khan, Dia Mirza, Kiron Kher, Vivek Oberoi and Om Puri.

Salim Merchant and Sulaiman Merchant have composed the music for the songs penned by lyricist and screenplay writer Prasoon Joshi. The film is slated for release on November 20. — ANI

No child’s play this
Small screen is bigger challenge for Big B

Bollywood actors Amitabh Bachchan (R) and Shamita Shetty pose for a picture on the sets of a television reality show Bigg Boss. Bollywood megastar Amitabh Bachchan said the small screen presented a larger challenge to him compared to the silver screen where he has completed 40 years.

“Television has been more challenging for me,” the actor said at a function organised to felicitate Indian cricket legends Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Vishwanath here.

For a film, the entire script and dialogues are written and you have to just follow the instructions given to you. But for a show like Kaun Banega Crorepati there is only a little part that is written and then you have to take over, the 67-year-old actor said. — PTI

Bollywood actors Amitabh Bachchan (R) and Shamita Shetty pose for a picture on the sets of a television reality show Bigg Boss. Reuters:Manav Manglani

Sunny days ahead
After romantic comedy, Santoshi to change genre again

Rajkumar Santoshi has just given a huge hit in Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani, a romantic comedy with youngsters Ranbir Kapoor and Katrina Kaif, but he’s not the kind to repeat a genre because it struck gold.

He now plans to work with Sunny Deol with hopes of rekindling the magic of Ghayal and Damini.

“Yes, my next should be with Sunny Deol,” Santoshi told. “I am looking at a couple of ideas but in principle I would be going ahead with Sunny,” said the director whose composure in no way reveals that he’s just hit the jackpot at the box office. The film’s genre would be centred on action drama and would come with a hard-hitting punch. But since comedies and light-hearted entertainers like his Ajab Prem... are ruling the roost, doesn’t he feel like playing safe?

“I have always told stories that I have felt like telling at any point of time without worrying about trends. Today, Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani is a comedy success. Tomorrow, I may make an entirely different film. That’s the way I have been,” said Santoshi, who doesn’t believe in ‘herd mentality’.

In his two-decade journey as a filmmaker, Santoshi has dabbled in different genres - from laugh riots, action thrillers to drama flicks.

While Ghayal and Damini were action and drama movies, Andaz Apna Apna was a cult classic comic affair. Ghatak was an emotional action film, Pukar was an espionage thriller, Lajja spoke of women’s empowerment while Halla Bol was revolutionary.

His movies might be hits or get critical acclaim but Santoshi says he never bothers about a film’s box-office success while making it. And that holds true for his latest hit Ajab Prem... too.

“Throughout my career, I have never looked at how big a money spinner my film would be. The focus has always been to make a good film. This was the guiding principle for Ajab Prem... as well and I guess it’s this honesty that is reaping benefits now,” he said.

At the same time, the filmmaker said he had a gut feeling Ajab Prem... would strike a chord with audiences as soon as it was made.

“I got that feeling when the film was ready and shown in trials. When my crew saw the film, they admitted that we were in for something big here. We could sense that the film would be a success. How big? Well, no one can ever gauge that,” Santoshi said.

His last two releases - Halla Bol and Family - hadn’t worked well, but the goofy Ajab Prem... has audiences in splits and the director is delighted. “The film was made for family audiences. I have been to theatres and seen for myself that kids are laughing their guts out. At places, the film has even got a standing ovation as the end credits start rolling,” Santoshi said. — IANS

Paint a smile
AIESEC's Bal Kalakaar was big Sunday picnic for the underprivileged kids
Neha Walia

The sunny Sunday afternoon played host to a small gesture with larger future hopes, a party with a dash of culture, a pinch of cause and a bunch of young comrades sharing a piece of life with their underprivileged counterparts. Along with all this, it was a day that brought out an artist in them as well. That was the motive behind Bal Kalakaar, an initiative undertaken by the AIESEC, Chandigarh chapter at Kalagram.

The event, Bal Kalakaar, was aimed at bringing together over 1500 under privileged kids from around the city and providing a platform for them to show their creative side in the form of a painting competition. "The paintings will be judged by professionals from a leading art institute and the winners will be given scholarships and a bicycle along with other gift hampers," says Karan Chhabra, vice president, organising committee.

So, what brought 50 odd AIESEC volunteers, including the international ones, to give up their weekend partying over a picnic? "The opportunity to interact with our community. The whole idea behind Bal Kalakaar was to encourage cultural exchange, do something for these kids and also have fun. We have a free medical check up camp set up for them and provide for their lunch as well," adds Karan.

As for the fun, the Global Village was an instant it with kids. International volunteers from countries like Belgium, Mexico, US, Czech Republic, South Africa, Hungry, Saudi Arabia and others served as guides for their respective countries and cultures for the kids. Some with a nice table display of their specialties and some giving a demonstration for entertainment. But the most popular was Santa Claus and his grand daughter Snowball from Russia. There was a chance to get lucky with the Czech lotteria.

And then there was a chance to become a parent for a day by adopting a Bal Kalakaar. "All you have to do was to pay Rs 500 for a Bal Kalakaar and adopt him/her for a day," says Karan.

Dowry despair

Item girl Shefali registers complaint against hubby, in-laws Bollywood item girl Shefali Zariwalla on Sunday lodged a complaint against her husband and in-laws for allegedly harassing her and demanding dowry. An FIR has been registered against her husband Harmeet Gulzar and in-laws at Oshiwara police station in suburban Andheri accusing them of harassing her and demanding dowry, assistant police commissioner Dilip Suryavanshi said.

The Kanta Laga.. number fame Shefali Zariwalla married Gwalior-based Harmeet Gulzar in 2005. "In an application last week, she said there were frequent arguments with her husband over dowry. " Suryavanshi said. — PTI

Launch Pad
Stay young

Youthful and glowing skin everyday is no longer a distant dream this winter. With Avon's Anew Rejuvenate, a range uniquely formulated to provide a complete spa experience, a radiant and healthy skin is now a daily veracity.

Avon's Anew Rejuvenate is patented with UV-protecting technology that makes skin look younger, fresher and stay beautifully protected all day. It helps maintain the look of a professional anti-aging facial all day long.

Anew Rejuvenate has the benefit of 'the three steps of an intensive anti-ageing facial' just packed in one step. Anew Rejuvenate range comprises of three products- Rejuvenate Day Cream SPF25, Rejuvenate Night Cream and Anew Rejuvenate 24H Eye Cream. —TNS

Happening singer
Singer Uvie on music, playback singing and a lot other things

A PU alumni Uvie, who is into playback singing, music direction and pop music was in Chandigarh for his shows in and around the city and also pay a tribute to all those who made him what he is today. "I am indebted to this city because its here that I learnt nuances of music under my guru Harvinder Singh and others," says Uvie.

Originally from a small hamlet Durgella in Himachal Pradesh, this seeker of music was on scholarship throughout. "I did an MA in music vocal from PU with a distinction to make a strong base. The practice in Agra gharana further enriched me," he says.

Uvie has already released his two pop albums K Factor and Aa Bhi Ja and has been playback singing for a number of films in Bollywood. "Playback singing is any singer's ultimate dream. I am happy I realised mine. I like pop albums for they give you freedom to create," Uvie shares.

Apart from singing, Uvie has also worked with music directors Sajid Wajid, Sonu Nigam and Babul Suprio as chief assistant. "One thing that I really appreciate about being in Mumbai is the range of work that one gets to do. I was a mentor and voice trainer on many singing shows Ek Se Barh Kar Ek, Shava Shava and Indian Idol," shares Uvie.

He has also sung in Bhojpuri films. A huge fan of Rafi and Kishor, Uvie does not believe in imitating them, "Every singer has to develop a style of his own. Copying music maestros takes you nowhere." The singer is all excited about his new song Happening in upcoming Main Aur Mrs Khanna. — Mona 

Spice up
Colour Palette
Shahnaz Husain

Make-up is all about choosing the right shades of colour cosmetics. Learning to select them according to skin colour and tone is as essential as mastering the techniques of application. In fact, it can make all the difference. Whether you have fair, wheatish, olive, brown or dark skin, choosing the right colours is so important. Learning the art of make-up is also about trial and error. The best effect is achieved with a little experimentation, by mixing colours till you find the shade, which is just right for you.

The natural skin tone is most important while selecting foundations. Ideally, it should enhance your natural colour, or even tone it down, when the skin colour is reddish, for instance. Try to buy one that is closest to your skin colour as possible. Face powder may be translucent, or of the same shade as the foundation. If you wish to tone down a tan, select a powder that is one shade lighter, but in the same colour tone. However, I feel that translucent powder works quite well.

For a very fair ivory skin, go for beige with a rosy tiny. If the complexion is fair, but sallow (yellowish), avoid pink tones and go for beige or biscuit. For reddish complexion, a softer beige will help. Olive complexions look better with brownish beige, while for brown and dark skins, try out colours in natural brown tones.

For contouring, like creating cheek hollows, select a foundation that is one or two shades darker than your normal foundation, but in the same colour tone. Keep the principle in mind that dark colours help the area recede, while light colours emphasise.

Where lips are concerned, a dark complexion looks good in vibrant colours. Avoid very pale colours. If the skin is fair, avoid very dark colours. For a brown complexion, go for warm earthy colours, like coral, wine, plum, strawberry or burgundy. A dark pink or rose-red would look good too. Even brick-red may suit. One can also mix two colours to create the desirable effect.

Blusher colours need not match lip colour exactly, but it should be co-ordinated. Keep to the same colour tone. For example, if you have worn an orange toned lipstick, avoid pink blush on. For fair skin, try pinks and reds. If you have a sallow skin, avoid orange. For olive complexions, colours like rose, coral, russet, amber, copper are flattering, while plum, wine, bronze and burgundy may suit darker complexions.

For eye colours, if the skin is fair, a brown eyebrow pencil may be more suitable than black. Darker skins can take black eyebrow pencil. For daytime make-up too, I find that a grey or brown may be better than black. The same goes for eyeliner. Brown and black eyeliners or eyepencils usually go well with Indian skin tones. Or, try charcoal (dark grey). These colours match the natural eye and eyelash colours.

When it comes to eyeshadow, two or three shades of the same colour can help to enhance the shape of the eyes. For a natural look, shades of the same colour tone should be used. Brown shadow may be applied on the lids and a darker brown in the crease of the eyes. A very light brown, or beige, may used as highlight. Of course, one can also use other colours. For brown skin and brown eyes mauve and navy blue can be combined, with silver highlight. For dark skin, a combination of gold and dark charcoal grey or brown can be combined.

When it comes to choosing colours for the different parts of the features, the effort should be to use colours that harmonize, not only with each other, but also with clothes. One should also keep the time of day in mind. Some colours are best for the night and end up looking too garish during the day. The different colours should blend into a whole. Beauty, after all, is a total impact.

Boss’ headache
Taskmasters take to the treadmill to shed pressure
Ashima Sehajpal

Dr T.S. Mahant
Dr T.S. Mahant

Please don’t think we are being partial but your boss has much more to do than just nagging and issuing orders. Apart from doing his day’s work, he has to do all those functions that has special chapter to them in any public administration or project management book, a few of them being, planning, organising, supervising, coordinating, controlling, directing…Grr. That’s it. We lost our breath counting. Hope you would read the rest.

The concern for the bosses’ health has also been recently expressed in a study conducted by University of Toronto, Canada that says, “Being a boss might mean more money and challenging work but it can also take a toll on physical and mental well being. Due to stress, bosses might suffer from health problems like headaches, body aches, heartburn, fatigue and various psychological problems like sleeping disorders and anxiety.”

We didn’t mean to scare the people enjoying higher positions. But in case you are finding it difficult to strike a balance between your high-pressure jobs and health, draw some inspiration from these bosses who knows the key to fitness. Rajnish Vasudeva, Marketing Head in a telecom company believes half of the problems are sorted when you get up early in the morning, “That gives you more time to plan out the day’s schedule.” His day begins with a brisk walk down to the gym, where he work outs for an hour, “Nothing benefits like one hour of strenuous gyming. On weekends, I prefer playing tennis or cricket to the usual gyming.” He gives equal weight age to diet as well, “I avoid oily food. Proteins is an important element of my diet as they make up for the energy loss during work out.” Also, he abides by the old saying, “Have breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper.”

Output of work is directly proportional to the fitness levels, which again is directly correlated to the physical activity one indulges in. NPS Randhawa, additional IG prisons, Director, Museum and Art Gallery, took to regular morning and evening walks after he suffered a slip disc, “It becomes important to go for brisk walks and light exercises after one crosses the 40 age mark to keep fit, ”says Randhawa. He also does a number of light exercises daily to strengthen his back. His diet includes a lot of green vegetables and roughage based foods.

Dr T.S.Mahant, Executive Director, Cardiovascular surgery, Fortis, keeps himself fit in spite of 12 hours of hectic days work, which increase further if there’s an emergency case.

But when does he take out time to exercise, “I do various light exercises, most of them being sitting exercises for my back and neck in whatever little time I get. Also, I utilize any free time by playing table tennis and doing treadmill, the facilities that are available in the hospital premises,” says Mahant. Once in while going for a jog early morning helps him too. His diet includes salads, green vegies and, “Lots of water, an important component of daily diet, which people generally ignore.” So, did you take a note now?

Clinically speaking
Sweet reality
It’s not all that tough to deal with diabetes, says Prof. J.S. Bajaj

The recent successful research on stem cell therapy by the PGI doctors has once again focused on diabetes that is assuming an alarming position in India. Going by the statement of The International Diabetes Federation, it is estimated that the number of diabetic patients in India have doubled from 19 million in 1995 to 40.9 million in 2007. It is projected to increase to 69.9 million by 2025. Currently, up to 11 per cent of India’s urban population and 3 per cent of rural population above the age of 15 has diabetes.

The World Health Organization estimates that mortality from diabetes and heart disease cost India about $210 billion every year and is expected to increase to $335 billion in the next ten years. The President of International Diabetes Federation, formerly Professor and Head of the Medicine department, AIIMS and Vice Chairman of the Punjab State Planning Board Prof. J.S. Bajaj underscored the need to observe a strict discipline of diabetics in day-to-day life style. 

Those afflicted with diabetes must make efforts to prevent long-term chronic complications by maintaining normal or near normal blood glucose, maintaining normal blood pressure, giving up smoking and excessive alcohol intake. “With proper monitoring of glucose, along with diabetes medications or insulin therapy, you can easily maintain your blood sugar levels,” said Prof Bajaj. Remember, what and how much you eat would affect your blood sugar level; it can go high one to two hours after a meal. “It is best to avoid simple carbohydrates such as sugar, honey”, stresses Prof Bajaj, He has advised for periodic eye check, estimation of blood lipids (fats) and regular urine check for albumin.

If diagnosed with diabetes:

w A routine screening is required beginning at the age of 45 years, especially if you are overweight. For those, under the age of 45 who have heart disease or diabetes as risk factors, live a sedentary lifestyle, have had gestational diabetes or have blood pressure, regular screening is necessary.

w If you are diagnosed with diabetes, you need to check your A1C (blood test) levels two to four times in a year. Your A1C should be maintained below 7 per cent. A higher A1C level signals an alteration in your medication and meal plan.

w Routine blood and urine testing, cholesterol levels in the blood, thyroid, liver and kidney function, regular eye and foot examinations are necessary to prevent complications from diabetes. Be physically active

w Check your blood sugar before you begin on any exercise program because physical activity lowers blood sugar. You might need to eat a snack before exercising.

w It is important to make exercise a part of your daily routine; at least 30 minutes every day, say Prof Bajaj. “Aerobic exercises such as brisk walking, swimming cycling etc with moderate intensity for 20 minutes for about three sessions in a week would be sufficient”, avers Prof Bajaj. A combination of aerobic exercise with stretching exercises works well in controlling blood sugar levels.

Pain & love

Just thinking of your loved one can provide relief if you are in pain, say University of California Los Angeles psychologists. The study underscores the importance of social relationships and staying socially connected. In the study, researchers asked if simply looking at a photograph of your significant other could reduce pain. It involved 25 women, mostly UCLA students, who had boyfriends with whom they had been in a good relationship for more than six months.

The women received moderately painful heat stimuli to their forearms while they went through a number of different conditions. In one set of conditions, they viewed photographs of their boyfriend, a stranger and a chair. “When the women were just looking at pictures of their partner, they actually reported less pain to the heat stimuli than when they were looking at pictures of an object or pictures of a stranger. Thus, the mere reminder of one’s partner through a simple photograph was capable of reducing pain,” said study co-author Dr. Naomi Eisenberger. “This changes our notion of how social support influences people.

Typically, we think that in order for social support to make us feel good, it has to be the kind of support that is very responsive to our emotional needs. Here, however, we are seeing that just a photo of one’s significant other can have the same effect,” she added. In another set of conditions, each woman held the hand of her boyfriend, the hand of a male stranger and a squeeze ball. The study found that when women were holding their boyfriends’ hands, they reported less physical pain than when they were holding a stranger’s hand or a ball while receiving the same amount of heat stimulation. “ —ANI

Boon ‘n’ ban

Smoking ban has resulted in a 27 per cent decrease in heart attacks in the city of Starkville in United States, reveals a new study. Researchers, led by Robert McMillen and Dr. Robert Collins, have also recommended a statewide public ban on smoking.

The study-that focussed on Starkville residents in the three-year span after the ban became law, compared to three years prior- showed fewer heart attacks being treated at the Oktibbeha County Hospital. The findings are part of a larger SSRC evaluation of Mississippi communities that passed smoking bans in recent years. McMillen said the data shows Starkville benefitting medically from the smoking ban.

“The emerging scientific consensus clearly demonstrates that communities like Starkville can reduce heart attacks simply by prohibiting smoking in indoor public places. Smoke-free laws are popular with the public and are free to implement,” said McMillen. The MSU investigation mirrors findings of a federally commissioned panel of scientists recently made public. Commissioned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, that report by the independent and non-profit Institute of Medicine examined information from 11 studies of communities in Canada, Italy, Scotland, and the United States. The CDC/IM concluded that bans on smoking in public places reduces cases of heart attacks and heart disease. “Our research substantiates that report from the Institute of Medicine,” McMillen said. —ANI

Lifestyle invites responses from readers on the following issue:

We have heard and read a lot about size zero but do you think a layperson knows what size zero means? or mail on Relatively Speaking, Lifestyle, The Tribune, Sector 29, Chandigarh. Only the best few responses will be published.

Body wise
Know your muscles
Sachin Kalra

One mistake many people make is to assume that all rules of dieting, exercise, and weight training apply to all individuals. However, this is not true. The rules at hand always vary, depending on the genetic makeup. A 'soma type' is a way to metabolically categorise a person's body into varying groupings.

Body types fall into three basic categories: ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph. Most people are genetically predisposed to develop characteristics of one of these soma types with secondary traits from other body types. These three body types make up the physique in which your body's genetics are inclined to follow. A person can be any one of these distinct categories or a mixture of two or principally be one, while having slight leanings in favour of other grouping characteristics. 

These three distinct groupings and their mutations in between, have numerous characteristics attributed to them. These dictate the type and frequency of training that is needed and of course the different nutritional requirements. The conditions of your body type actually have more to do with bone structure and your body's frame than the muscle tissue itself.

The ectomorph

They possess a low body fat percentage level, small bones size, a high metabolism, and a small amount of muscle mass and muscle size. The ectomorph is a linear physique. They are not naturally powerful and will have to work hard for every ounce of muscle and every bit of strength he or she can gain.

Training style- When it comes to weight training, do not be stingy. Go for intensity to gain the required muscle strength. A primary concern is their frail stature consisting of small bones and joints that have a tendency to be injured easily during sporting activities. So be careful with form and technique.

Nutrition- The best way to deal with such stingy genetics is to eat and eat right. Five substantial meals a day, favoring the carbohydrates heavily while consuming ample amounts of protein is recommended. Consuming extra calories should not be a concern.

The mesomorph

They possess a low to medium body fat percentage level, medium to large bone size, a medium to high metabolism, and a large amount of muscle mass and muscle size. Mesomorphs have the tendency to be muscular and ripped and have well defined muscles and maintain the best attributes of both the ectomorphs and the endomorphs. They tend to make excellent all round athletes, especially bodybuilders.

Training style- The best exercises for mesomorphs include activities that require strength, power and endurance. Most things work well for them and hence they should try and follow a balanced exercise regime. They can generally build muscle and shed away fat with considerable ease.

Nutrition- Mesomorphs must basically follow the general guidelines of healthy eating and exercise to maintain the desirable physiques that they're genetics have so kindly blessed them with. A mesomorph should consume a gram of protein a day for every pound of his or her bodyweight, while taking six frequent meals per day. Although they generally store fat evenly all over their bodies, they can become overweight if they are sedentary and consume a high-fat and/or high-calorie diet.

The endomorph

They possess a high body fat percentage level, large bone size, a slow metabolism, and a small amount of muscle mass and muscle size. They are generally stocky and have short, thick limbs and heavy bones. The upper arms and thighs are often more developed than the lower parts of the arms or legs. The body has a high waist. Their physique presents an illusion that much of the mass is concentrated in the abdominal area. This may or may not be true. A male endomorph tends to have a different fat distribution pattern from that of a female endomorph. The females usually collect fat in their butts, legs, and hips, while most males collect fat in their abdomen.

Training style- Cardiovascular regimens - anything from swimming to biking - is essential for endomorphs looking to trim down. Thirty minutes per day, four days a week, will keep the metabolism trained and primed for fat burning. Meanwhile, weight training should contain sets of several repetitions using a moderate weight, with limited time spent between sets.

Nutrition- Many endomorphs desire a leaner, more defined look, and should try cutting the fats down to a minimum. Lean protein sources are generally recommended here, anything from fish and turkey to egg whites. Sugars, sweets and junk food should be eliminated from the endomorphs diet. Meanwhile, an endomorph's intake should consist of about seven smaller-portioned meals throughout the day, a recognized method of boosting metabolism and burning fats and calories.

Combination body types

Very often, people cannot be easily classed as one of the three main body types. Although there are some people who are purely ectomorphs, endomorphs, or mesomorphs with little or no characteristics of the other body types, very frequently, people fall into mixed categories. All of this is genetically coded from our parents and ancestors and there really is nothing that you can do about it. When you know which type you are (or which mixture), diet and exercise correctly for that type for a better progress.

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