L U D H I A N A   S T O R I E S


Rising cases put question mark on TB programme
Anshu Seth
Tribune News Service

No drug sensitivity lab in Punjab

Three per cent new cases and 12-17 per cent old cases of MDR TB are surfacing in the country. Till date there was no drug sensitivity lab in the state thus detecting MDR cases was impossible. But, a lab will soon open in Patiala following which DOTS plus treatment for the MDR cases will be introduced in Punjab. It would be beneficial for the patients as well as the private doctors to send MDR/XDR cases to DOTS centres as the approximate cost of the treatment per person will be Rs 2.5 lakh.

Diagnosis and treatment

There are 648 DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course) centres in Ludhiana district besides 48 microscopic centres where sputum examination is conducted free of cost. The seven TB units have facilities for complete examination and treatment of patients suffering from tuberculosis.

Infertility among women

Extra pulmonary TB cases in women result in infertility. Instead of getting themselves tested for TB, women end up spending a fortune on the tests recommended by the gynaecologists and physicians.

— Dr J Vig, vice-principal, DMCH, and head of state task force for TB

Ludhiana, March 24
With 5,934 cases of tuberculosis (TB) surfacing in Ludhiana in 2010compared to 5,497 cases in 2009 and 5,191 in 2008, there is a constant increase in the number of patients, putting a question mark on the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).

Also, there is an increase in the multiple drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, as a large number of physicians in the private healthcare sector have failed to administer directly observed treatment short course (DOTS). Since the inception of DOTS in Ludhiana district in 2002, only 40,185 patients have been put on DOTS.

Despite the availability of the top brand medicine for TB at the government-run DOTS centres in Ludhiana, people from affluent families don’t prefer to go to the these centers, the reason being "social stigma" that the word will spread. As a result, they are administered medicine, which is not recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the treatment is incomplete that increases the probability of the patients becoming resistant to drugs.

Dr Ashish Chawla, district TB officer, further stated that young and unmarried girls is another category who are not willing to come to DOTS centres as they fear "losing" the chance of good marriage partner. "Surprising yet true that even the migrant labour working in industries is going to the private practitioners, as they fear losing the job if seen at the DOTS centre," revealed Chawla.

“However, we are trying to rope in more doctors from private health sector and recently 20 doctors registered with IMA have signed MoU for administering DOTS to the TB patients. "As per the guidelines of RNTCP, 70 per cent of the TB patients had to be put on DOTS, which we have achieved in Ludhiana district but the target has now been increased to 90 per cent that we are determined to achieve," Chawla went on to add.


5 labourers, cyclist killed in accident
Gurminder Singh Grewal

Machhiwara, March 24
Six persons were killed and six others injured in a road accident near Pirthipur village on the Machhiwara-Kohara road around 10 pm yesterday. According to sources, a Mahindra Jeep carrying labourers was on its way from a farmhouse situated near Raian village to Machhiwara after work when it rammed into a tree after running over a cyclist near the bus stop of Pirthipur village.

The sources said the driver tried to save the cyclist but lost control of the vehicle and rammed it into the tree. The vehicle overturned after the collision.

The collision was so fierce that five labourers were killed on the spot, while six others were seriously injured. A passerby, principal DD Verma, and some others informed the police about the accident.

Teams from the Koom Kalan police station reached the scene and took the injured to the local Civil Hospital in a critical condition.

Three of the critically injured were referred to the CMCH, Ludhiana.

The dead have been identified as cyclist Sukhdev Singh of Upplan village, Rajesh Sahwney (32), Dharminder Kumar (21), Dhuro Sawhney (28), Tinku Sawhney (25) and Murari Sawhney, all residents of Batra Colony and Guron Colony, Machhiwara.

The injured have been identified as Amar Singh of Lakhowal village, Santosh, Shingori Sawhney, Vikas Sawhney, Kuldip Singh and Vijay Sawhney, all residents of Machhiwara.

The police later handed over the bodies to the families after a post-mortem examination conducted at the Civil Hospital, Ludhiana. The police is probing the cause of the accident.

Meanwhile, a pal of gloom descended on Guron Colony here after the news of the death of four labourers of the colony reached there.



Cricket World Cup
Betting moves from professional punters to common people
Shivani Bhakoo
Tribune News Service

Ludhiana, March 24
As the Cricket World Cup moves into the knock-out stage, betting in the game is moving from professional punters to the common people. The only difference is that while the punters play it professionally, the common people put the stakes only on their favourite teams irrespective of their prospects in the game.

Although there are no exact estimates as to what extent the betting “business” is going on, people involved in the betting claim that it has been running into hundreds and hundreds of crores. There are several betting centres in Punjab where it is done in an organised manner. These mainly include Ludhiana, Bathinda, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Patiala and Ferozepur.

A number of people in the know of betting rings in different parts of the state told The Tribune that the Cricket World Cup had not made any significant difference as far as the amount was involved. The people involved in betting put stakes even on county cricket. For them, it is business as usual.

However, it is the common man, be it a small or big businessman, professionals like doctors, engineers, executives and others who have started taking chances in the bigger game that involves money. But there is a difference between the professional punters, for whom betting is a full-time profession and for those who place their bets for fun and hobby.

Like they say, the punters have no personal favourites or patriotic preferences. Their preferences are determined by the prospects of the game and they always go with the side that is winning. For example, if there is a match between India and Pakistan and in case Pakistan is winning the game, the punters will place their money on Pakistan and wish that team to win even if it means winning against India.

At the same time, the people driven by nationalistic and patriotic sentiments will place their bets on their favourite team, for example India for Indians, irrespective of the probable outcome of the game.

In the process they do not mind losing their money. Although it is not difficult to identify or locate full-time punters in Ludhiana or anywhere else, none of them is prepared to come on record. Premium clubs in Ludhiana and other cities are full of them.

One of them disclosed that he had been into cricket betting for over a decade now and had no qualms in admitting that it had become his full-time business. He keeps a watch on all games be it football, cricket or tennis. Even the elections offer business prospects for them, he said.

How do betting rings operate? Since betting is not allowed in India and is a punishable offence under the Gambling Act, people do it clandestinely. It will not be proper to blame the police for not being able to track them as a betting ring can be operated from a single room which can be changed at will. And with the availability of mobile and the Internet, betting has become all the more easy.

Whenever a match starts between two teams, there is one favourite team, which is expected to win. So most people place their bets on the winning team (the one expected to win at the beginning of the game). For example, in the game between Pakistan and West Indies on Wednesday, Pakistan began as favourites. Placing a bet on the favourite team fetches less money against the one which is not the favourite. Like in the Pakistan- West Indies match if anybody would place a bet of Rs 100 on Pakistan, he would win Rs 40 in case Pakistan won. And if anybody would place Rs 100 on West Indies, he would get Rs 200 if it won.

But usually the punters place safe bets only. The betting rates do not remain the same for the full game. These keep on changing with the progress of the game. Like in the case of the Pakistan- West Indies game, as Pakistan got the control of the game, in the beginning its rate came down to Rs 20 for each Rs 100, while correspondingly it kept on increasing for the West Indies. More the prospects for winning of a game, lesser the price one gets in return for the bet.

But there are people who bet against odds. For example, in yesterday’s game when Pakistan came to bat, everybody expected them to win as the West Indies had scored very low. Anyone who could risk to place a bet on a West Indies victory would get Rs 500 for every Rs 100. And upsets do take place and there have been several occasions when a team expected to win loses and the one expected to lose wins at the end.

And the amateurs who place bets for fun or sentiment do it for their favourite teams only. And they do not keep changing their stakes. There are thousands of Indian fans who always place bets for an Indian victory and stick to these till the end even if there is no scope of an Indian victory.



Hardcore criminals arrested
Tribune News Service

Recent crime

Arjan Lal had fired a shot at his daughter, Aarti, 10 days ago when the latter had refused to tell the whereabouts of her mother to Arjan Lal. He, along with an accomplice, had taken Aarti to a village near here, where he fired a shot at her leg

Ludhiana, March 24
Arjan Lal, an alleged hardcore criminal, against whom about 30 cases of murder, thefts and robberies are pending with the local police, was nabbed along with another criminal Anil Kumar Bhola, a convict in double murder case, by the city police here this evening.

Both criminals were arrested from near Dholewal Chowk on a tip-off. Giving details about the arrested criminals, SHO Surinder Mohan said Arjan Lal and Bhola had escaped from police custody a few days ago. Arjan Lal was under treatment at Civil Hospital here, where he drugged policemen and staff of the hospital and ran away. Bhola ran away while he was being taken to Jalandhar for hearing of a case. A knife has been recovered from the accused.

Arjan Lal had fired a shot at his daughter Aarti about 10 days ago when the latter had refused to tell the whereabouts of her mother to Arjan Lal. Arjan Lal, along with an accomplice, had taken Aarti to a village near here, where he fired a shot at her leg. The accused left Aarti in an injured state and fled from the scene. In the wee hours, Aarti managed to reach a nearby liquor shop, from where she managed to reach Civil Hospital here.

Surinder Mohan said there were at least 30 cases pending against Arjan Lal, while six were pending against Bhola.



Garment Industry
Day’s strike causes Rs 60-cr loss
Manav Mander
Tribune News Service

The death knell

In the past one year, raw cotton prices have gone up by 150 per cent, yarn by 100 per cent while other inputs like elastic, sewing thread and labour, etc. have all spiraled putting immense pressure on the textile industry. Margins on low-end brands are very low and the consumer is highly price sensitive — a small hike leads to lower consumption. The position is further aggravated by the overall high inflation in the economy.

Second-largest employer

After agriculture, the textile industry is the largest employer in the country. It provides livelihood to 8 per cent of the population and over 40 percent of the work force comprises women. The excise duty levy will directly impact them, as the industry will further slowdown due to a decrease in consumption and stiffer competition from cheap imports from low-cost countries like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Ludhiana, March 24
The local garment industry today incurred a loss of around Rs 50-60 crore after it went on strike against the excise duty levied on branded garments. The overall textile industry in the city, including spinning, knitting, dyeing, weaving, hosiery, garments, is pegged at Rs 25,000 crore and every time it goes on strike, it loses up to Rs 60 crore every day.

Though the garment and allied industries throughout the country are observing complete bandh since the announcement of the Union Budget, the Ludhiana industry has been joining them off and on.

“The relief provided by the finance minister by raising the abatement of 40 per cent to 55 per cent on the retail sale price is merely an eyewash. The industry is bearing heavy losses due to the protest but we are left with no other option. There is a complete halt of inflow and outflow of garments from Ludhiana,” said Ajit Lakra, president, Chamber of Knitwear and Textile Associations of Ludhiana.

He added that the common man was already reeling under high inflation on basic items. There had been a 10 per cent plus annual inflation in food articles and a 30-50 per cent inflation in clothing over the past one year. The common man was looking for a relief from the same. However, the government had “gifted” overnight another 10-15 per cent inflation by imposition of the excise duty.

The textile industry is unhappy over the revised norms of the excise duty on readymade garments and is continuing with the protest. “Under the revised norms, 10 per cent excise duty will be levied on 45 per cent of the tariff value of retail price on branded readymade garments as against 60 per cent proposed in the original budget,” said Vinod K Thapar, president, Knitwear Club.

“The industry is unable to bear the burden under the prevailing circumstances when the cost of raw material has almost doubled in the past two years. The prices of yarn have sky-rocketed and now the excise duty has added to their woe,” added Sudarshan Jain, president, Knitwear and Apparel Manufacturers Association of Ludhiana.

“We are already facing losses and the excise duty has further aggravated our problems. There is no flow of goods in the market. No orders are being dispatched from the city and we will continue with our agitation until the excise duty is rolled back completely,” added a representative of the Madhopuri Hosiery Welfare Association.



Building violations at Feroze Gandhi market
Erring shopkeepers to get MC notices
Tribune News Service

HC directive

The action follows a Punjab and Haryana High Court directive asking the Local Bodies Department to ensure the smooth movement of fire engines on specified stretches as per the site plan of the Feroze Gandhi market

Ludhiana, March 24
Waking up to the widespread irregularities in the construction of buildings in the Feroze Gandhi market locality, the Municipal Corporation Commissioner has asked the building branch of the civic body to issue notices to erring building owners.

MC Commissioner AK Sinha along with a battery of officials of the civic body, including Joint Commissioner BK Gupta and Senior Town Planner (STP) Balkar Singh Brar, inspected the market this afternoon to look into the fire safety arrangements there.

The visit was necessitated by the orders of the Punjab and Haryana High Court, which had asked the Local Bodies Department to ensure the smooth movement of fire engines on specified stretches as per the site plan of the market.

The officials inspected the routes that were to be followed by fire tenders in case of an emergency.

However, confronted by brazen violation of the building bylaws by shopkeepers of the market, the MC Commissioner asked the STP to issue notices to the erring building owners and submit a report regarding the violations to him.

He added that the roads leading to the market would be declared “towaway zones” to ensure proper parking of vehicles in the market. Staff of both the MC and the district police would be deployed there for its enforcement.

Similarly, the MC Commissioner asked the officials of the fire department about their preparedness in tackling emergency situations.

Earlier, MC staff were on their toes, making elaborate arrangements for the visit of the civic body’s top brass.

While officials of the building and road (B&R) branch were seen repairing a road near the Ludhiana Improvement Trust (LIT) office building, those of the tehbazaari branch were busy removing encroachments from the area.

Similarly, electricity branch staff removed a pole from the centre of a road, as it hampered the movement of fire engines in case of an emergency.

Also, horticulture staff removed a tree that was creating a hurdle in the movement of vehicles.

However, a major building having public toilets and a generator was left untouched in spite of the fact that it blocked the route of the fire engines.



Unsafe buildings in city
crumbling, standing precariously...

While on one hand the Punjab government has been auctioning commercial properties to generate additional funds, it has done precious little to safeguard the interests of employees of some government offices who are working in “unsafe” buildings. In the last four months, the Ludhiana Improvement Trust has sold real estate worth Rs 30 crore, while the Greater Ludhiana Area Development Authority has auctioned land valued at Rs 46 crore. Tribune reporters Anshu Seth, Manvinder Singh and Anil Kumar and lensman Himanshu Mahajan surveyed some buildings occupied by government offices which are in a dilapidated condition and look as if they could crumble anytime.

Dispensary in Model Town
Has developed fissures

The wornout Government dispensary
The wornout Government dispensary

The dispensary, operated by the health & family welfare department, has not been renovated even once in the last three decades. The staff of seven including the medical officer, auxiliary midwife nurse, staff nurse and paramedical employees work under constant danger as the building’s walls have developed fissures making them unsafe. At many places the cement has come out of the roofs and the steel is peeping out.

“It’s become difficult even to find safe corners to administer first aid to patients as most of the available space is covered with furniture, equipment and medicines,” said a senior health official.

In the absence of proper refrigeration equipment at the dispensary, dampness in the building is a major problem for medicines that cannot be stored in humid conditions.

Zila parishad office
Crying for repairs

A section of the ‘zila parishad’ office is house in an outdated building that crumbled two years ago. The office was being used by employees of anti-larvae wing of the health & family welfare department. Even though the staff had brought the matter to the notice of the authorities concerned no repairs were undertaken.

“Fortunately we’d just left for some field work, otherwise the dismantling of the roof and walls would have resulted in serious injuries to the anti-larvae wing staff, said a 
health official.

Ironically, instead of renovating the particular structure or pulling it down completely, government officials just shifted the staff to another office and the crumbling building was locked for good. However, the authorities do not seem to realize the building could be a risk to people sitting or standing nearby.

Said a senior employee at the ‘zila parishad’ office: “As the structure housing the office is very old and also beautiful, it should be renovated without bringing any changes in the original design and then preserved as a heritage building.”

A mishap awaiting to happen at Mali Gung
A mishap awaiting to happen at Mali Gung

A three-storeyed dilapidated building at Chhawani Mohalla in old city
A three-storeyed dilapidated building at Chhawani Mohalla in old city

An old building at Pindi Gali
An old building at Pindi Gali

Inner areas in the city
Danger looming large on residents

Danger looms large over residents of the city’s inner areas due to the apathy of municipal corporation officials as, despite regular complaints, the civic body is remains hesitant to pull down a large number of old and abandoned buildings in the area.

A visit to the area reveals the pathetic condition of old structures. Officials have never bothered to take care of these buildings, which were once known for their solid construction but have now been abandoned due to years of neglect. Their dilapidated condition poses a grave threat to the lives and property of residents.

Located in busy localities like Maligunj, Chawni Mohalla, Pindi Gali and the area opposite Namak Mandi, these buildings show the apathy of civic officials who have failed to demolish them despite numerous complaints by the residents. Neither the MC nor any other agency has ever bothered to conduct a survey on unsafe buildings in these areas, due to which people continue to live in miserable conditions.

When contacted, Parminder Mehta, the councilor who represents these areas, asserted: “We had given several representations to officials for demolishing these buildings but no one has ever bothered to look into the matter. A large number of tragic incidents involving loss of property due to the presence of these buildings have failed to spur any action by the MC”.

Similarly Navin Talwar, owner of one such building in Chawni Mohall, asserted: “We’re forced to keep the unsafe building intact due to failure of the civic authorities to take action to pull it down and stubbornness of the tenants who refuse to hand over possession of the part of building under their occupation”.

In the same manner haphazard construction in area by violating the building bye laws in these inner areas is also posing a major threat to life to residents. But it seems that MC would wake up only after some grave mishap takes place in these areas.

Government Primary School, Islam Ganj
Roofless classrooms a threat to students

Roofless Government school in Islam Ganj
Roofless Government school in Islam Ganj

Students of the Government Primary School in Islam Ganj near Chaura Bazaar have been studying in a place that poses a threat to their lives. The school structure does not have a roof left over the rooms. What are left are the dangerous iron rods and weak walls that are unable to support the structure. Even though the school authorities are well aware the walls appear too weak to support the iron rods they are forced to conduct classes inside the rooms due to the bright sunlight. Said a class 5 student, Varun, who lives near the school: “We study inside rooms that lack roofs. During winter it was fine but now in summer we feel we’ll be in trouble. As we sit on ground we feel the walls about to fall on us. Recently an iron rod in a room fell down but fortunately no kid was inside,” he stated, Varun adding his father could not afford to send him to a better school.

Residents living nearby alleged the school had been converted from an educational institution into a shelter for drug addicts. The Ludhiana Tribune found lots of empty bottles and syringes inside the rooms.

Said district education officer (primary) Harpal Kaur: “The school has been running since 1929 and there are about 75 to 80 students studying there presently. Currently the school building is in pathetic condition. We have not been able to reconstruct the structure because a local committee has filed a court case and the matter is sub judice”.

The government should grant funds for the construction of a new school building without any further delay.

A laboratory
A laboratory

The front view of a chipped wall at the Civil Surgeon’s Office
The front view of a chipped wall at the Civil Surgeon’s Office

Civil Surgeon’s office
Declared unsafe 11 years back

The office of the city civil surgeon located in Civil Lines is functioning in a building that was declared “unsafe” almost eleven years ago.

The staff of almost 90, employed under the National Rural Health Mission, district health officer, registrar of deaths & births (rural), laboratory and district family welfare officer in addition to the clerical staff and the civil surgeon work in the building that has developed cracks and is in danger of collapsing anytime.

So much so that officials have to look for a safe place to preserve records as the roofs leak during the rainy season, thereby adding to their problems.

The civil surgeon has been advised not to use some rooms in the residence (a part of the civil surgeon’s office complex) as it is highly unsafe and the walls appear as they could come down any moment.

“Repeated reminders from the civil surgeon’s office to the public works department seem to have fallen on deaf ears as no move has been made to renovate even a single room in the whole block during the past eleven years”, said an old employee at the office.

The building’s dilapidated condition has resulted in haphazard electricity connections with wires in a complete mess, which have even led to short circuits in the past.



Realtor’s Death
3-member probe panel constituted
Tribune News Service


Property dealer Chandan Sharma was brutally killed a few yards away from his house in the Rishi Nagar locality on March 12

Ludhiana, March 24
The city police has reportedly constituted a new three-member team to probe into the death of property dealer Chandan Sharma, who was brutally killed a few yards away from his house in the Rishi Nagar locality on March 12. The committee members include ADCP I Harsh Bansal, ACP Sahnewal Balraj Singh and SHO Salem Tabri Gurdev Singh.

Talking to Ludhiana Tribune, Raju Kanojia, a family member of the deceased, said the family was not satisfied with the way the case was being investigated by the police. He said the previous committee, including J.S.Sidhu ADCP III, Maninder Bedi (SHO Div. Number 8) and Beant Juneja, had failed to bring the desired results.

"After the bhog ceremony of Chandan, the family members had met Commissioner Police, who informed us that a new team would look into the matter. We agreed with him. We want a speedy justice, whosoever may conduct the probe. We have lost our young child and the culprits need to be booked at the earliest," said Kanojia.

Chandan Sharma, a resident of Haibowal, was allegedly murdered and poisoned by three persons on March 12. "Love triangle" was found to be the cause of the brutal murder. Demanding justice, relatives of Sharma had staged a protest against the police, as the latter had failed to book the prime accused Shivraj Singh and a girl "involved" in the matter who had reportedly "provoked" Shivraj to commit the crime. The relatives had also alleged that the police was trying to give it a shape of suicide instead of murder.

The family members of Chandan maintained that he (Chandan) had an affair with a girl, who later got engaged to Shivraj Singh, but Chandan wanted to "revive" his relationship with the girl. In an attempt to teach Chandan a lesson, Shivraj Singh and his men attacked Chandan with swords and rods and he bled to death on March 12. The relatives had also alleged that the police was trying to "shield" the culprits and had staged a protest outside the office of Assistant Police Commissioner (West) on March 18.



Staff crunch
MC sends list of vacancies to government
Manvinder Singh
Tribune News Service

The backlog

The state government had recently asked MC officials to submit details of vacancies in the civic body. In its reply, the MC specified that 239 posts of the provincial cadre and over 660 posts of the non-provincial cadre were lying vacant in the civic body

Ludhiana, March 24
In a shot in the arm for the municipal corporation, which has been reeling under severe staff crunch, the state government has asked the civic body to start the process of removing the backlog by filling vacant posts.

According to sources, the state government has recently asked the MC officials to submit the details of the backlog of vacancies in the civic body.

Similarly, in a letter to the civic body, the state government has asked the MC officials to give their proposal on recruiting additional staff so that the working of the civic body may be improved.

In their reply to the state government, the MC officials have specified 239 posts of the provincial cadre that need to be filled directly by the state government. Similarly, over 660 posts of the non-provincial cadre are lying vacant in the civic body.

The MC officials have stressed the need for recruiting staff immediately to ease the burden on the current staff and improve its functioning.

Sources say the civic body officials have been urging the higher authorities in the state government to fill the vacancies in the civic body immediately as its working is being severely hampered due to the shortage.

Sources say as the limits of the city have expanded, the workload on the staff has increased manifold, causing severe problems in its functioning. MC officials have thereby approached the state government to fill the vacancies to ease the burden, the sources add.

MC Additional Commissioner Kanwalpreet Kaur Brar says the state government has asked them to give the details of the backlog of vacant posts in the corporation.

They have given their reply in this regard and it is up to the state government to take necessary action on the matter, she adds.



Elementary teachers stage protest
Tribune News Service

Ludhiana, March 24
Elementary teachers today staged a protest at the DC office after they were not called for counselling by District Education Officer Harpal Kaur. Teachers from distant areas came for counselling but after reaching the office, they were told that there was no such counselling schedule fixed for today. The teachers came for counselling for their transfer to the education department from zila parishad.

The teachers met the ADC (D), who instructed them to meet Amandeep Gujral, secretary, Zila Parishad, but he said they had forwarded the counselling list to Chandigarh.

Balraj Singh, district senior vice president of the ETT Teachers Union, said it had been five months since the Chief Minister had ordered that the teachers of zila parishad would be transferred to the education department but till date they had not even done counselling.



Lawyers observe strike
Our Legal Correspondent

Ludhiana, March 24
Showing resentment against the proposed bill "Legal Practitioners (Regulations & maintenance of standards in professions, protecting the interest of clients & promoting the rule of law) Act, 2010", city lawyers observed a complete strike.

The Bar Council of Punjab and Haryana had given a call to all district bar associations for lodging their protest against the Bill, with the plea that the same was against lawyers.

The Bill proposes to set up a Legal Services Board on the lines of the UK, to be headed by a retired sessions judge for hearing complaints against lawyers.

Lawyers staged a dharna outside the bar room, raising slogans against the Bill. These leaders claimed that they had resolved to oppose the hidden agenda behind the Act of destroying the unity and solidarity of the Indian legal profession, and also the independence of the profession, thereby paving the way for the entry of foreign lawyers and law firms in our country.



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