Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Posted at: Jul 8, 2018, 4:54 PM; last updated: Jul 8, 2018, 4:54 PM (IST)

New way to develop medicines free of side effects

New way to develop medicines free of side effects
Photo source: Thinkstock


A new technique for precisely targeting molecules within cells may pave the way for medicines that are free of side effects, scientists say.

Researchers from the University of Virginia in the US have developed a way to manipulate molecules from compartment to compartment within individual cells.

The same molecules do different things depending on their location, the researchers determined. By manipulating the molecules, scientists can determine exactly which locations to target, while avoiding locations that would cause harmful side effects.

"The problem with side effects is caused because you just could not distinguish the molecules doing different things in the same cell," J Julius Zhu, from University of Virginia, said.

"If you blocked a molecule, you blocked it regardless of what it was doing. And that usually has unwanted side effects. Almost every drug that can treat disease has side effects, either major or minor, but usually they always have something," said Zhu.

Until now, drugs have targeted molecules in a very general way. If a molecule was thought to be harmful, researchers might try to develop a drug to block it entirely.

However, Zhu's work highlights the downside of that shotgun approach. A molecule might be causing problems because of what it is doing in one part of the cell, but, at the same time, that same molecule is doing something entirely different in other parts—perhaps something tremendously important.

Shutting it down entirely would be like trying to solve the problem of traffic congestion by banning cars.

Rather than crudely trying to block a molecule regardless of its many functions, doctors can target a specific molecule doing a specific thing in a specific location.

That adds a new level of precision to the concept of precision medicine - medicine tailored exactly to a patient's needs.

The technique will be useful for many different diseases, but especially for cancers and neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's.

The technique will also speed up the development of new treatments by letting researchers more quickly understand what molecules are doing and which should be targeted. PTI


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