Sunday, June 4, 2000,
Chandigarh, India
L U D H I A N A   S T O R I E S


This is the nerve-centre of industry in north India
From A. S. Prashar
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — 

Awwal tan Ludhiane jayiye na,
Je jayiye tan kuchh leayiye na,
Je leayiye tan sewayiye na,
Je sewayiye tan dhoyiye na,
Je dhoyiye tan payiye na,
Je payiye tan pachhtayiye na.

(Don't go to Ludhiana, in the first place,
If you do go, don't bring back anything.
If you do bring back, don't have it stitched,
If you do get it stitched, don't have it washed,
If you do have it washed, don't wear it,
If you do wear it, don't repent").

Thus goes an old Punjabi saying on the life and style of Ludhiana. But it was obviously coined when Ludhiana was known as the producer of cheap, shoddy and substandard goods. It has come a long way since then. Ludhiana no doubt has a dark side to it. But it also represents one of the grandest success stories of Punjab.

The megacity hums with activity all the time. Its vast industrial network throbs day and night, turning out goods worth hundreds of crores and sending them to all corners of India and different parts of the world. There is a kind of subdued frenzy in the city, with most of its inhabitants doing their best to expand business and make more money.

Ludhiana has now grown into the industrial hub of Punjab and is one of the biggest industrial centres of northern India. Roughly, two-thirds of the industrial investment of Punjab lies in Ludhiana. The megacity accounts for more than 40 per cent of the total industrial output of the state. One-third of the total power available in Punjab is consumed in Ludhiana alone.

Ninety five percent of the country's woollen industry is located in Ludhiana. Some of best known brand names, including Oswal, Casa Blanca, Santa Rora, Monte Carlo, LWS, Pringle, York, Greatway, Raymond, are made here. Thirty per cent of the cotton industry is also based here. As much as 70 per cent of the country's cycle and cycle parts are manufactured in Ludhiana. Hero, Avon, Neelam, Kular and Atlas, to name only a few, are manufactured here. A very large chunk of India's sewing machines and fans are also

produced here, besides small machine and hand tools. Agricultural implements manufactured by Passi are exported. In addition, Ludhiana is home to certain world-class tyre and tube manufacturing units for two- and three-wheelers, including cycles, scooters, motor cycles, animal driven vehicles etc.

The Ludhiana industry can be broadly divided into three sectors. The first and foremost are the hosiery-based industrial units which include woollen, cotton and synthetic yarns. The second is the steel-based sector which includes cycles and autoparts and foundries. The third is rubber-based industry for making tyres and tubes.

According to Mr P.D. Sharma, President of Apex Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the industry began coming up in earnest in the city in the sixties in the Industrial Estates A and B. The industrial focal point at Dhandari Kalan began coming up in the late seventies. Now the industry has spread all around Ludhiana up to a radius of 35 km.

It has stretched past Kohara and reached Neelon on the road to Chandigarh. On the G.T.Road, it has begun to touch Doraha. It is the same story on the G.T.Road towards Jalandhar and the highway to Ferozepore.

According to a conservative estimate, there are more than 3,000 units of cycle and cycle parts in the city. Similarly, the number of hosiery units exceeds 3000. There are 45 steel furnaces in the city, about half a dozen mini steel pants and as many as 45 steel rolling mills.

Ludhiana was a small business centre during pre-Independence days. A handful of hosiery units were located here. Most of the trains did not halt here. Ludhiana gained some importance when a government college was established here in 1920. The next break for the city came when Punjab Agricultural University was established here at the behest of the late Chief Minister of Punjab, Mr Partap Singh Kairon. The college and PAU turned out to be an effective combination. While the college brought in intellect in the development of the city, PAU brought in prosperity through the Green Revolution. Another factor which led to the growth of Ludhiana was the large influx of the refugees.

The growth of Ludhiana into a major industrial centre has not been without problems. The city's population now stands at nearly 25 lakh, with another floating population of five lakh. Industrialisation has brought in its wake industrial pollution. Ludhiana is now the most polluted city of Punjab. The housing shortage is acute. The infrastructure has all but broken down and there is little hope of improvement in the near future.

According to a prominent industrialist of Ludhiana, the Ludhiana industry is street-smart. Cost control and current asset management by most of them is very good. They are making their profits on low margins and high volumes. What is, however, needed now is better technology, modern management systems aided by computers and more awareness about quality. If Ludhiana can evolve this new work culture, there has no doubt that it will become a major engine for growth in the new century.Back


Oh... that craze for phoren VCDs, TVs, faxes, cell phones
From Ruchika Mohindra
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — Remember the last time you fumed when your neighbour bragged about the latest electronic gadgets, cosmetics or the other household articles which he had picked up on his latest foreign tour. Now, various imported goods that are smuggled into the town are being sold openly in various markets.

More than 50 shops in almost all main markets in the town are cashing in on the growing craze for all things phoren. Shopkeepers are openly selling the latest models of smuggled items. These include home theatre systems, VCDs, televisions, audio systems, faxes, cellular phones, microwave owens, refrigerators, washing machines, airconditioners etc. Imported cosmetics, perfumes, crystal and silverware and lingerie are also being sold illegally. This was found out by me during a visit to many of these shops in the dingy lanes of Gur Mandi and the posh markets of Ghumar Mandi, Sarabha Nagar and Model Town.

Since the business is illegal (no bill is issued for any of these items nor any guarantee is given, although the shopkeepers promise to replace the goods in case of any problem within 15 days of the date of sale), this reporter had to pose as a prospective customer in order to get sufficient details about the goods available and the comparative prices of various brands.

At Gur Mandi, enquiries revealed that there were more than 25 shops here and another 10 at Ghass Mandi where I could get any smuggled imported items. “Where should I look for a wider range of electronics?” I asked an unsuspecting shopkeeper. He told me about a shop owned by a senior Shiv Sena leader, which according to him,”was the best”.

As I began making enquiries about this shop, the other shopkeepers in the market, sensing a prospective customer, offered to show me their wares. The shopkeeper asked one of his messengers to take me to the dukaan, hardly 20 yards from the earlier shop. I was led up the stairs to a shop, where imported electronic goods worth hundreds of thousands of rupees were on display. I said I was shopping for the dowry of my younger sister. I was shown various models of Home Theatre Systems, televisions, decks, air-conditioners and microwave owens.

At another shop I am categorically told that only imported goods are sold here and that the price of an item is determined in accordance with the rise and fall in the value of the Rupee in accordance with the US dollar. I ask if a bill will be issued to me and the shopkeeper replies in the negative, though he promises that “maal sab ton vadiya haiga.” He also promises home delivery of all products bought from him.

At three other shops also in the market, I find that electronics items of Sony, Aiwa, Panasonic, General, Siemens, White Westinghouse and National are widely available.

At shops in Ghumar Mandi, Model Town and Sarabha Nagar, I find that these are more or less retail outlets, while the other shops in Gur Mandi are wholesale dealers’ shops.

Enquiries about how these smuggled imported items find their way into the city reveal that these goods are smuggled from Nepal into the country. After the goods reach Delhi, these are brought to Ludhiana either in trains that reach here in the dead of the night or in Sumo vehicles allegedly, the goods are brought here several times over on a single bill with the connivance of the officials at the Information Collection Centres.

The goods that come in the trains are also offloaded in a clever fashion, with the alleged connivance of a few train drivers.

It is alleged that the trains are slowed down at places like Islamganj or the green signal near Islamganj, where after those, who bring the goods from Delhi, establish contact with the recipients through mobile phones or signals, the goods are offloaded from the train. It is also alleged that train drivers are paid between Rs 1,000 and Rs 2,000 for their “help”.

However, no one is complaining. Residents are satisfying their need for buying these goods and shopkeepers are making good money. This sale of smuggled goods is being carried out right under the nose of the Customs and sales tax officials.Back


Sahir, Randhawa and those perfumes

Civilization has been variously defined, but it should not be confused with culture, though it is linked with it. Material progress is a reliable indicator of the level of civilization of the people of a given area. One can study it at micro-level, or can take it to the macro-level. On the contrary, culture is the quality of living, the indication or measure of perfection. Civilization is externally visible, while culture is internally cultivated. Ludhiana provides a nearly ideal ground to study civilization and culture.

Take any cross-section of the populace of this fast-growing city. Apply any of your five senses in any order. Eyes and ears notice both the excess of dust and smoke and the deafening horns and hooters. Gases attack the nose and skin, speed breaks your nerves and jerks crack the bones. Human hands are losing warmth and the handshake is like holding an ice-cold frozen dead fish. Fast food is very fast in killing the classical taste of Punjabi diet. We seem to be at war with values.

Eyes are losing sight and gaining glasses. Ears are becoming more and more insensitive. Stone-deafness is not far away. If noise attacks, can deafness be far behind? It is the fumes which come from all sources — a real indication of hazards of civilization. Smoke from all sheds and shanties, vehicles of all denomination and three-wheelers in particular, inject free and compulsory poison.

It is a mad race. No goal is defined. No object is specified. With more of speed we are collectively driven to an inferno. Diseases of lungs are spreading fast. Alarm bells are ringing. Hospitals are working day and night. Chemists at shops work in three shifts. This indicates the havoc of fumes, besides many more killers.

Civilization has turned unbalanced. It is like the Leaning Tower of Pisa. We must individually think about this malady, driving to madness. We must collectively fight this material malady to save life and culture. Culture is the antidote of wrongs of civilization.

No flower looks mean and no leaf is unwanted. Let us make a start here and now. Sahir gave poetry, Harkrishan Lal his painting, Randhawa gave the city it's Rose Garden. Men put on a bit of scent, which is very relieving. Women delicately apply perfume, which undo some fumes. Coronets for them all. Women with perfumes are our hope to fight against poisonous fumes. With this pleasant addition, Ludhiana is indicative of love of life and zest for living.

— M.S. Cheema



Hrithik overshadows Sachin? ‘You bet’
From Vimal Sumbly
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — The humiliating defeat of the Indian cricket team at the hands of the Sri Lankans appears to have added to the aversion of cricket lovers towards the game. The shadow of match-fixing controversy already looming large over the ongoing Asia Cup Cricket Tournament currently in progress in Dhaka appears to have further darkened. A random survey by TNS revealed that so popular a game like cricket is losing all charm.

Yesterday’s stars are viewed with suspicion today. Even Sachin Tendulkar’s batting appears to have lost charm among his fans. “It looks as if there is a bet behind every ball”, remarks Dr Ravinder Vatsayan, a leading physician and a long-time cricket fan, adding that the game has lost all thrill and charm. Because everyone suspects that the result may already have been predetermined.

With too much of media publicity already there, the match-fixing appears to be the main issue of discussion at different places. Cutting across the age difference, young and old alike, and in a number of cases the girls also, involve themselves in the mind boggling gossip. Match-fixing appears to have occupied the dominant place everywhere.

A group of students in Punjab Agricultural University were not even prepared to entertain any queries or offer any comment on the subject. “It is disappointing to learn about all sleaze being exchanged by our stars”, said Rajkamal. He pointed out, rather in a sarcastic manner, the heroes who would shower boundaries and sixers in the field are now throwing wide allegations not at enemies but against each other.

For Harish, a shopkeeper in Chaura Bazar, it is quite relaxing now. “A cricket match, particularly with Pakistan would make my blood pressure go up, now I have no such worries as I have lost all interest”, he said regretfully. For him his favourite star Kapil Dev is not above suspicion either. “The way things are unfolding I have no reason not to believe them”, he said, despite the fact that Kapil’s picture still hangs on the wall behind him. “But truth will come out after thorough investigations only”, he pointed out.

Most people the TNS talked to were of the opinion that the government should conduct a time-bound probe into the match-fixing controversy to ensure that cricket regains its charm. Archit Dogra said, “it is clear that some people are at fault. They need to be identified and punished. Otherwise every player would be seen with suspicion”. His views were shared by others also. Some people even suggested that for the time being Indian cricket team should not play any games.

The allegations of match-fixing have already had their impact on the advertising world also. Sources in the marketing circles reveals that the companies have reported withdrawn the advertisements featuring cricket stars. They are fast being replaced by the filmstars. Cricketstars no longer sell. Even the posters of cricket stars have also vanished. Because their are few buyers, says Ramesh, a poster vendor. According to him, the children now ask for posters of filmstars like Hrithik Roshan and not Sachin Tendulkar.


Chaos, congestion in court complex
From Kuldip Bhatia

LUDHIANA, June 3 — The lawyers, the litigants and even the judicial officers in the old district courts complex, located in more than 100-year-old buildings in the city, are a harassed lot. The buildings, which were declared unsafe long back, house 17 courts of the judicial magistrates and more than 300 chambers for lawyers. An estimated 3,000 to 5,000 litigants and other persons visit the courts every day.

The old courts complex has problems galore. The sad part is that the work on construction of new judicial complex has almost halted or is progressing at a snail’s pace at best. No early reprieve seems to be in sight for the suffering lawyers, litigants and members of the judiciary.

As if the total lack of basic amenities like drinking water, sanitation, public utilities and waiting rooms for visitors was not enough, haphazard location of lawyers’ chambers, chaotic parking of vehicles and encroachment of passages and all kinds of vacant places by unauthorised rehriwalas selling eatables and soft drinks and others like typists, petition writers and stamp vendors have added to the misery of visiting public and lawyers alike, rues former President of the District Bar Association, Mr K.R.Sikri.

Echoing similar sentiments, President of Young Lawyers Forum, Mr Pradeep Sharma, adds,”If the people visiting old courts have to brave it out in the scorching heat and freezing cold , depending upon the weather conditions in the open unshaded places outside the court rooms, the make-shift structures of lawyers’ chambers and leaking roofs of several court rooms make things difficult for both the lawyers and the judges when it pours.” Supporting him, the forum General Secretary, Mr Ashok Bhakri, reveals that during the rainy season, the normal working in the courtrooms is hampered and it is not uncommon to see the judges shifting their seats to avoid getting drenched by the rainwater leaking through dilapidated roofs of the courtrooms.

According to another lawyer, Mr Vijay Arora, the entire court complex, spread over 9 acres, does not have a single urinal. While men make use of secluded corners to empty their bladders, the absence of toilet blocks creates embarrassing situation at times, for the women visitors. The general level of cleanliness and sanitation also leaves much to be desired.

Although six courts of additional district and sessions judges were shifted to new courts complex in the mini-secretariat way back in 1993, the shifting of lower courts to the new complex is being repeatedly put off for variety of reasons. For one, the lower courts complex still awaits completion due to lack of funds. The other being no provision for lawyers’ chambers in the new complex.

Citing indifference and apathy of the Government as the main stumbling block, Mr Harish Rai Dhanda, President of District Bar Association, laments that despite judiciary being a vital part of the country, it is accorded a low priority as far as allocation of funds is concerned.

“Yes, the work on the new complex has stopped. How can it continue if no funds are made available? The issue of lawyers’ chambers also remains unsettled even after a series of meetings with senior government functionaries, including the Chief Minister Mr Parkash Singh Badal,” remarks an agitated Mr Dhanda, who also heads the Punjab Bar Association, the body comprising district presidents of all Bar associations of Punjab.

The Government, he continues, has formulated a plan for a nine-storey building for the lawyers’ chambers in the new complex with provisions for utility services and canteen on each floor on the condition that lawyers contribute a substantial part of the construction cost, which is not acceptable to them. “There is no justification of the lawyers financing the construction of chambers in view of the fact that we are vacating 9 acres of prime land, which stands transferred to PUDA for commercial use and will fetch the state government crores of rupees. However, with the hope that it may speed up the things, we have made an offer that around 500 lawyers will pay Rs 50,000 each for their chambers but the offer did not find favour with the government,” added Mr Dhanda.

With all the articulation and oratorial skills that they are known for, the lawyers have so far failed to win their point with the state government. So until the awaited funds for completion of courts complex materialise, chambers for the lawyers are constructed and lower courts shifted to the new complex, the litigants, the lawyers and the judges alike, will have to make do with congestion, insanitary conditions, crammed court rooms, leaking rooms, unhygienic food stuff, blistering heat in summers and freezing cold in winters.


Chhabeels bring respite from the heat
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, June 3 — With the mercury soaring high and the heat wave continuing unabated in the city, a large number of chhabeels (stalls offering cool sweetened water) put up almost all over the city today provided a relief to the pedestrians, shopping public, the cyclists and rickshawpullers.

While a number of chhabeels have come up in the wake of nagar kirtan being taken out in the city today on the eve of martyrdom day of the fifth Sikh Guru, Sri Guru Arjun Dev, some were held by others.

At some places, groups of residents, shopkeepers or even students, who are free from their schools, also added bhandaras, serving eatables like chana-bhatura, poori-aloo or chana-kulcha to go with a variety of sweetened cool drinks like kachi lassi, flavoured syrup or squash.

Chhabeels and bhandaras refreshed the people not only in old city, main commercial areas, industrial areas but helping them beat the heat in posh colonies like Civil Lines, Model Town, Tagore Nagar, Kitchlu Nagar and Mall Road. That the idea is well-conceived and timely is proved when one comes across an orderly serpentine queue of perspiring persons waiting for their turn to be served a glass of the chilled sweet drink near Clock Tower chowk.

In particular, the chhabeels have come as a great respite for rickshaw pullers who frequently need to replenish body fluids because of blistering heat and a large number of cycle rickshaws, parked haphazardly all around the place serving sweetened water is not an uncommon site.

That the effort is well recognised and regarded was summed up by Ram Kishore, a migrant rickshawpuller from Bihar, who gulping a glass of kachi lassi while sitting on the seat of his cycle rickshaw remarked, "Agar yeh chhabeelein na lagee hon to is garmee mein hum mar hi jayen."


Drive against drug abuse
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — Following the reports of drug abuse rampant in the city, the district administration has decided to create special awareness among youth against drugs, in association with various non-government organisations and educational and medical institutions. A committee, headed by the Additional Deputy Commissioner Mr S R Kaler, has been formed, which is expected to submit its report for implementation soon.

The decision was taken at a meeting of the representatives of various NGOs and other social organisations held here under the chairmanship of the Deputy Commissioner, Mr S K Sandhu. It was suggested in the meeting that easy availability of drugs, pan masala, gutka and tobacco encouraged drug abuse. This could be checked after shifting such kiosks put up along the Punjab Agricultural University and various other educational institutions.

Speaking on the occasion, the Deputy Commissioner said the programme would be launched in several phases in all parts of the district. He said, the addicts would be identified and persuaded to get treatment in the deaddiction centre. He disclosed that prominent industrialists would be involved in rehabilitation of such youth.

Mr Sandhu also directed the Civil Surgeon to keep strict vigil on the vulnerable places and identify the chemists who were engaged in illegal trade of drugs.

Others who attended the meeting included the ADC, Mr S R Kaler, the Civil Surgeon, Dr Rajinder Kauai, the president of Guru Gobind Singh Study Circle, Mr Gurmeet Singh, and Dr Inderjeet of Acupuncture Hospital.



Road widening a source of inconvenience
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — The ongoing widening work of the Shaheed Joginder Pal Pandey road towards the Udham Singh Nagar side, also known as the Ferozepur-Habbowal bye-pass road, has become a source of inconvenience and harassment to the residents of the colony.

While the residents have no objection to the work, they are infuriated at the callous attitude of the construction officials and workers who are causing undue problems to them.

According to Col (retd) C.S. Dhillon, ever since the work started, the miseries of the residents increased. In a communication to The Tribune, Colonel Dhillon said the work was being carried out in an irresponsible manner as the labourers had cut the underground telephone lines three times. He said telephones of the colony had gone dead due to snapping of the lines.

Another resident, Mr Bhupinder Singh, said the labourers unloaded heaps of stones at the entrances of several houses last month. He said now they came after one month and dug up the road well to the boundary walls, again blocking the entrances which the residents had cleared on their own.

The residents also claimed that while the digging the ground in front of the entrance to the houses, the labourers had promised to make some temporary arrangement but went away without fulfilling it. They said a number of accidents had occurred due to the absence of any signboard erected by the contractor.

In a representation to The Tribune, the residents urged the Municipal Corporation and the district administration to take steps to redress their grievances.


Ex-servicemen resent govt indifference
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — Indian Ex-servicemen League, Punjab and Chandigarh, has resented the delay in providing the benefits of the fifth Pay Commission to pensioners. The league, in a meeting, has regretted that the government is indifferent towards the problems of the ex-servicemen.

According the President of the league, Lt-Col (retd) C S Dhillon, 4 years have passed since the government accepted the recommendations of the Central Fifth Pay Commission. But unfortunately, the pensioners have been left out so far.

The league appealed the Punjab Government to fill about 5000 vacancies in various departments reserved for ex-servicemen. The league reminded the Chief Minister, Mr Prakash Singh Badal, on the issue.

The league regretted that the war widows of 1965 and 1971 wars were yet to be compensated by the Government. So far, they have neither been allotted any land or other compensation even after the lapse of over 3 decades.

The league also resented the nomination of some persons with vested interests in various District Development Committees and Grievances Redressal Committees in the name of ex-servicemen. The league alleged some people were using these nomination for vested interests.Back


Informers get man released, hand him over to killers
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — The revelations about two police informers getting a man released from a police station and later handing him over to his sworn enemies to be later murdered, has once again raised serious questions about the love-hate relationship between the police and certain petty criminals who serve as police informers.

It is reliably learnt that Sanjay Kumar alias Dabbu, who was murdered and his body later thrown away in the Sirhind Canal on May 25, was got released from the Model Town police station on the fateful night at the instance of a petty criminal,Kuldeep Singh alias Sonu and Sukhi — both of whom are learnt to be police informers. Dabbu had been caught by the police on May 22 for gambling in the Dhakka Colony along with six others.While all the other persons were allegedly let off by the police at the instance of certain local politicians the same day, Dabbu was kept in the police custody.

Highly placed police sources have informed that when Kuldeep Singh and Sonu got the deceased off -the -hook, they took him on a scooter to a pre-decided destination, hardly 100 yards away from the police station and handed him over to his sworn enemy-Aman Goel and his four other accomplices. With the connivance of his accomplices, Aman Goel threw a blanket over him and pushed him in a waiting car. After this, the accused allegedly murdered Dabbu by stabbing him several times over.They then boarded the car and carried his body from Model Town to Ayali village and then threw his body into the Sirhind Canal from a bridge near the village.Since the seat covers and the floor mats of the car were spoiled by the blood of the deceased, the accused removed all these and also allegedly threw these into the canal .

It may be noted that the main accused, Aman Goel had surrendered before the Model Town police on last Friday and confessed to have murdered Dabbu, but the police was still clueless about the body of the deceased and the other persons involved. A few days ago the case was handed over to the CIA Branch of the police and the CIA branch has today arrested three persons-

Aman Goel, Karamjit Neelu and Davinder Singh Kaki. The police has also identified the other accused as Om Dutt Raja, a P.C.O. owner and the two above mentioned police informers, confirmed DSP Satish Malhotra.The arrested three persons have been booked under Sections 302,364 and 201 of the IPC.

It is also learnt that the police is making all out efforts to trace out the body of the victim and the divers from the nearby villages of Ayali were summoned to help find the body. Efforts were also on to try and stop the release of the water in the canal so as to aid in the recovery operations. Back



One hurt in attack
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, June 3 — Bharat Prashar sustained serious injuries when he was attacked by Kamal, Gagan and Sunny with sharp-edged weapons. He has been admitted to a local hospital for treatment and a case under Sections 323, 325, 506 and 34 of the IPC registered at Police Station Division No.4.

Dowry cases: At least three cases of dowry have been registered at three different police stations during the last 24 hours.

In a case registered at Police Station Division No.2, Kamaljit Kaur has alleged that her husband- Kamaljit Singh, father-in- law,Tarlok Singh and mother-in-law, Mewa Kaur were troubling her for getting insufficient dowry. In another case, Harpreet Kaur, has accused her husband, Satnam Singh,father-in-law Gurcharan Singh, Jaswinder Kaur and others. The third case has been registered on the complaint of Najjar Singh that his daughter, Toshi was being harassed by her in-laws and husband, Gurmukh Singh for bringing insufficient dowry.

Jewellery stolen: Thieves broke into the house of Paramjit Singh in Hargobind Nagar and decamped with gold jewellery worth a few thousand rupees. A case under Section 379 of the IPC was registered by the police today.

Chain snatched: Two persons allegedly snatched a gold chain weighing 3.5 tolas from Suresh Kumar near KVM School around 3:45 p.m. yesterday. The accused were on a motor cycle and the police has registered a case under Sections 379 and 356 of the IPC.

In all the three cases, the police has booked the accused under Sections 406 and 498 A of the IPC.Back

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