Genetic, prenatal, perinatal,
postnatal factors, such as biological, environmental,
developmental are said to be prominent causes of learning
disabilities but there is hardly any agreement on this among
experts and analysts. These disabilities afflict more boys than
girls. Professionals and educational planners are needed to
identify these children.
speaking, dyslexia (problems in reading) dysgraphia (problems in
writing), dyscalculia (problems in learning maths) and attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (problems in paying attention)
are the major blocks to the learning process.
In dyslexia, many
children exhibit an inability to acquire and use word skills.
For instance, the letter ‘b’ might be written as ‘d’,
the word was might become saw for them or girl might be written
as ‘gril’. In dysgraphia, the person’s handwriting becomes
the problem. Such children show poor motor skill, faulty visual
perception of letters and words, poor memory, lack of muscular
coordination, including eye and hand coordination, and a poor
grasp of grammar.
affects the child’s ability to learn mathematics. The child
finds it difficult to establish spatial relationships (up-down,
high-low, size relationships (big-small, more-less). Apart from
this, they also tend to confuse between size, left and right,
etc. Such children also fail to follow the sequence in multistep
problems. So one must engage such children in play with blocks
and puzzles. Mood swings, refusal to eat, breaking toys, getting
distracted and a lack of concentration are the symptoms of
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children suffering
from this disorder make careless mistakes, often lose things,
forget routine chores; never think about the consequences of
their action and don’t wait to hear the entire question before
answering it. The best way to teach such kids is to use
audio-visual aids. They should also be provided with reading
material that would interest them. Sometimes such deficiencies
can lead to disruptive behaviour.
learning disabilities have varying needs and, hence, teaching
strategies need to be different, too. The curriculum needs to be
adapted to the needs of each child. Tutoring and cooperative
learning can be adopted. The multisensory approach can also be
attitude, a sense of humour and ability to establish rapport are
some of the qualities which the teacher must possess. Parents
should be supportive. Child must not be neglected and should be
encouraged to develop a feeling of responsibility.
intervention, assessment and assistance are crucial factors. The
child should be helped to develop confidence and a positive
self-image. The author has given guidance in this direction.