Budh Singh published Khalsa Dharm Shatak in 1876. Kahn
Singh Nabha wrote Raj Dharm (1884), Ham Hindu Nahin (1898)
and Mahan Kosh (1930), Gurmat Sudhakar, 1898
Hindi, 1901 Punjabi). By the efforts of Chief Khalsa Diwan Gurmat
Parkash Bhag Sanskar was printed in 1915. Babu Teja Singh
Bhasaur’s Khalsa Rahit Parkash was published in 1911.
Jodh Singh’s Gurmati Niranay was published in 1932.
Finally Sikh Rahit Maryada was brought out by the SGPC in
About his book The
Early Sikh Tradition I wrote: "McLeod knows more about
the janamsakhis of Guru Nanak more than anyone dead or
living." This time it is the rahitnamas. He knows who has
omitted what in whom. Piara Singh Padam quotes an extract from Granth
Bhai Painda as if it were from Prachin biran bare.
Bhai Vir Singh’s footnote on p. 5196 of Guru Partap Suraj
Granth "differs markedly" from Santokh’s version
of Sakhi eight of Sau Sakhi. None of Avtar Singh
Vahiria’s works are listed in Ganda Singh’s two
bibliographies. Kahn Singh Nabha was compelled to leave many of
the (rahitnama) injunctions in Gurmat Sudhakar. Khalsa
Rahit Parkash of Babu Teja Singh was largely a copy of the
rahitnamas in Kahn Singh Nabha’s Gurmat Sudhakar. Sant
Sing Maskeen quotes in support of five Ks two couplets from Nand
Lal and Desa Singh; neither is there in the early versions of rahitnamas
attributed to them. Two English translations of Sikh Rahit
Maryada do not adhere strictly to the Punjabi text.
rahitnamas hardly agree on anything. Two agree on "not
calling a Sikh by half his name," and two on "not
wearing a janau." Spatially no two writers are
seeing the same social reality, and none observes chronically
what has been observed before. Sikhs as a "remarkable"
social group do not exist. Rahitnamas are
"expressives" of strictly "personal"
I doubt if Tankhahnama
can be dated 1718-19. Raj karega Khalsa aki rhe na koi/
Khwar hoi sabh milenge, bache sharn jo hoi. ‘Milna’ is a
technical term for ceremonial surrender. The word is so used
throughout Jassa Singh Banod by Ram Sukh Rao, Suraj
Parkash by Bhai Santokh Singh, and Panth Parkash by
Rattan Singh Bhangoo. Khwar hoi are enemies beseiged by
the Sikhs, not the persecuted Sikhs. This is possible sometime
protests against the social differentiation creeping into the
Panth. "Never insult another Sikh by... pulling his turban,
pulling the hair of his kesh, or grasping his beard. Never
awaken a Sikh by kicking him. A Gursikh should not eat good food
himself while serving inferior food to another. Never dismiss a
Sikh servant. He who kills another Sikh will go to hell."
Insistence on rahit would not paper over splits in the Panth
just as flight into fundamentalism the world over does not cure
The book is
voluptuously produced with two black spots of misprints: Bhal
(Bhai), p. XIV, and Pusian (Persian), p. 207, to avoid the evil