That’s how AI
ARTIFICAL Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. A lot has been done in the field of AI. The history of AI can be divided into the following stages:
Logic: This stage occurred between 1920 and 1930, when the work of Kurt Godel, Alan Turing, Alonzo Church, i.e. the logicians started. It helped perform proposition calculus and predicate logic. Information Technology led them to conclude that facts and ideas from a natural language could be formally described. Alan Turing even demonstrated in 1936 that a simple computer processor could manipulate symbols well as numbers. The resulting machine was termed Alan Turing machine.
Cybernetics: By cybernetics we mean communication in human and machine. The stage is supposed to have occurred between ’40s and ’50s. This study of communication was an active area of research during that period. The term Cybernetics was introduced by Norbert Weiner. It combined the concepts from information theory, feedback control and electronic computers etc.
Formal languages: This stage was actually an outgrowth of the very first stage when the importance of logic was realised. It occurred in fifties. In the general field of linguistics, the stage helped provide various new approaches to language theories.
Commercial computers: This stage included work of Claude Shanon on Information Theory. Neurological theories and models of the brain conceived by psychologists, including introduction to Boolean algebra, switching theory and statistical decision theory etc. were the main highlights of this stage.
Game playing: It was a pivotal stage in the development of artificial intelligence. It was the period often remembered for chess-playing program developed at MIT, simulation programs, machine translation programs and storage of large dictions in computers.
Official birth of AI: The mid-fifties is generally referred to as the period of the official birth of AI. During this period, a summer workshop was held at Dartmarth College. IBM sponsored it. Automatic theorem proving and new programming languages were the hot issues then. The stage was marked by Noam Chomsky’s work on the Theory of Generative Grammars, development of Fortran, Rosenblatts’ preceptrons, pattern recognition concept, John McCarthy development of LISP (list processor, a programming language), GPS by Newell, Shaw and Simon, Gelernter Geometry Theorem proving machine (written in Fortran) and EPAM (Elementary Perceiver and Memoriser) developed by Edward Feigenbaum etc.
Expert systems and later work: Around 1965, the work of Robinson on revolution as inference in logic was the major achievement in AI.
Apart from it, Macsyma,
a large interactive program by William Martin & Joel Moses for
solution of various problems of mathematics, was initiated. It was
written in LISP. Various researches have been done after that period.
Yet a lot needs to be done.