Visualise the vistas
A visualiser’s job is to give pictorial representation to an idea or concept so that it
can be communicated to the public, writes Sangita Sharma Phukan

Visualisation is the art of visualising an idea or a concept to convey a message in relation to a product or service. This is generally done by means of creative software tools. A visualiser needs to plan the designs from the conceptual stage to 
finalisation. He needs to have an excellent visualisation capacity to understand a concept and convert it into creative output.

“Visualisation is an extensive area of creativity. The professional needs to give a pictorial representation of an idea or concept, so that it can be communicated to the public,” says R. Krishnan, global head, Arena Animation.

Earlier, the knowledge of computer software was not a necessity for a visualiser, as his role was only limited to conceptualising the ideas. However, with technological advancement and the increased use of multimedia in various fields, a visualiser is required to have a sound knowledge of software applications so that he can lead a team of technically trained designers to produce the output.

Role of a visualiser

A visualiser is responsible for conceptualising, layout designing and interface designing relevant for the print media, multimedia and web. It is his task to visualise an idea to promote a product. He needs to prepare a storyboard and then sit with his team of graphic designers, and multimedia artists to design the advertisement or any material for communication either for the print or electronic media. For the same, the visualiser needs to have a good knowledge of colours, designs, especially that of software tools like Photoshop, Illustrator, Animation and Multimedia tools.

A visualiser is a key person in an advertising agency, handling both the print and electronic media. “The client will give a product or service for publicity. It is the responsibility of the visualiser to present the product in a very attractive way, so that the customer is motivated to buy it. The advertisement — whether in print or on video — has to create an impression on the viewers’ mind,” says Krishnan. He has to visualise and implement design concepts according to client briefs.

Skill set

A visualiser holds a very significant position in a print publishing house like a newspaper or magazine. In any newspaper or magazine office, the visualiser has to conceptualise the complete page layout in accordance with the text content. He has to read and understand the text thoroughly and then use graphics and illustrations to convey the complete story through pictorial representation.

A visualiser needs training in software tools like Graphics, Coral Draw, Flash, Indesign, Photoshop and Illustrator. A knowledge of 2D, 3D and web designing is an added advantage to work for the electronic media.

A degree in Fine Arts also helps one excel in this field. Creative thinking and timely execution of a job to meet stringent deadlines is very important.

Areas of work

Besides media and advertising, there are other avenues where the visualiser can play an important role. The following are some of the other aspects of this field that move beyond advertising and media.

Product visualisation: This is designing and viewing the product model through software technology. It involves manipulation of 3D models, technical drawing etc, of manufactured components so that the product can be viewed before it is actually manufactured. This saves on cost and also decreases the risk factor before launching a new product. This is essential in the automobile, electronic, real estate as well as apparel industry.

Technical visualisation: This is a significant part of product development. Before a product is developed, sketches and drawings are made showing the various components as well as the finished product. Earlier, this was done through manual drawings. But now this has been replaced by computer-aided design (CAD).

Educational visualisation: This is generally done on a computer by using replicated data to create an image that can be taught or communicated properly to the learner. An example of such an image is that of an atomic structure, as atoms are too tiny to be studied easily without specialised scientific equipments. It is also used to view past events and extinct objects like dinosaurs.

Knowledge visualisation is used to create and communicate knowledge via the computer and non-computer-based graphic representation of techniques. For example, information graphics, sketches, diagrams, images, mind maps, dynamic visuals (animations), imaginary visualisations, storyboards or even physical objects. Knowledge visualisation has its roots in information design, instructional message design, pedagogy, cognitive psychology, graphic design, visual communication, communication sciences and knowledge management in order to make knowledge easily accessible, shared, discussed, and applied.

Scientific visualisation: This is done by the use of computer to display real-world objects which are otherwise not possible to see with a naked eye. This includes shapes of molecules, air, fluid dynamics and weather patterns.

A visualiser can find employment in an advertising agency, media or publishing house, television channel or any production house.

Placement prospects

Such a professional can also find employment in the creative department of corporate houses. “Mostly corporate houses outsource their creative and publicity material to advertising agencies. However, some of the companies do have in-house creative departments,” says Krishnan. As mentioned above, the need for visualisation goes beyond the media and publicity.

Hence, a visualiser is also required in the automobile and other manufacturing industry, heavy industries like power, petroleum, and hydro-power projects. Educational institutions, weather forecast departments and scientific and geographical research centres too require a visualiser.

In terms of salary, a visualiser can earn anything between Rs 10,000 and 30,000 in any advertising agency or media house at the initial stages. However, with some industry experience, a professional can earn in lakhs. In case of manufacturing plants and corporate houses, the salary and perks are equal to any management executive.



Career Hotline
Pervin Malhotra
Cabin crew coaching

Q. Although I’m from a small town in Punjab, I have studied in an English medium boarding school. Is it still necessary for me to join an airhostess training academy if I want to join this line?

— Jasbeer Chaddha

A.You don’t necessarily need to enrol for an expensive course run by private institutes that have mushroomed all across the country. Most premiere airlines put their cabin crew through a rigorous training programme to hone their skills. Many of the international airlines send their hostesses abroad for training.

The training is specially designed to familiarise you with aviation terminology, destinations to which the airline operates, refresher courses in geography, understanding time differences and different currencies, handling passengers, documentation, laws and regulations of travel. In-flight service training includes understanding the cuisine of different countries, bar sales, identifying different wines and cheeses etc. You will be taught how to serve passengers in all different classes -- First, Executive and Economy.

Post-9/11, passenger and aircraft security has gained paramount importance. Flight safety classes are conducted using simulated or mock evacuation drills. Since the airhostess epitomises the warm and welcoming face of the airline, personal grooming and voice training form a very important part of the training. The Bharat-India divide is fast closing in and you’ll be surprised by the number of applicants from small towns queuing up for airhostess jobs.

No one is saying that it’s easy. But if you have the grit and determination you can surely get wings for this high-flying job.

So, while it is by no means mandatory, joining a training academy can help if you are lacking in ‘polish’, confidence or communication skills. Some budget airlines also tap into the products of these schools. But at the end of the day, you have to make the cut. There’s no guarantee that you’ll land a job on board. Also helps if you are open to other ground jobs or working at the front desk of a hotel, spa etc.



Future in the past

Q. While studying history as part of my BA programme, I developed an interest in archaeology. Can you please suggest some universities that offer this subject at the PG-level and also tell me about the job prospects?

— Parvesh Johar

Some institutions which offer PG courses in archaeology and related fields in the north:

n Barkatullah Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal;
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi;
n Kurukshetra University
n The Delhi Institute of Heritage Research & Management, 18 A, Satsang Vihar Marg, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi 110067

Affiliated to GGSIPU, the institute offers two courses:

Masters in Archaeology & Heritage Mgt (2 years)

Masters in Conservation, Preservation & Heritage Mgt (2 yrs)

Eligibility: Bachelors degree (Humanities / Science)

Selection: Entrance Test: 10 July ‘08.

n Institute of Archaeology, Archaeological Survey of India, Red Fort Complex, Delhi 110006 (GoI) 110001

Course: PG Diploma in Archaeology (2-yrs)

A Stipend of Rs 1500 is offered for unemployed students.

Eligibility: Master's degree (Ancient / Medieval Indian History) / (Archaeology / Anthropology / Indian Classical Language / Geology ; 55 per cent). Age Limit: 25.

A. Archaeology is the systematic study of extinct societies, and the past of living societies through excavation analysis, and interpretation of their artifacts, human and other remains. Besides archaeological theory, you will learn about field and dating methods, conservation, and cultural and physical evolution.

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) offers jobs related to this field. You can also opt for jobs in museums, research institutions, the travel and tourism industry or work with bodies like Indian Council for Cultural Research (ICCR) or INTACH. Private collectors also require the services of archaeologists. There are increasing opportunities both in the public and private sectors in heritage management, curating and academics, regional archaeological services and development work both in India and overseas. Teaching and creating public awareness is another option. Preserving our rich and diverse heritage is of utmost importance. And heritage can be protected only when you share your knowledge with the people living in the surrounding areas and co-opt them in your conservation effort.

Specialisations in this field include epigraphy (deciphering ancient inscriptions), numismatics (the study of old coins, medals, etc.), restoration and conservation of ancient monuments, heritage sites and artifacts.

The writer is a noted career consultant 

Please send in your query, preferably on a postcard, along with your full name, complete address and academic qualifications to: Editor, Jobs and Careers, The Tribune, Sector 29, Chandigarh-160030, or at



Law after a lull 

Q. I am a woman lawyer who has practised in court for six years. I took a break for two years after I got married. I am interested in becoming a public notary but I have heard that one requires at least 10 years of work experience. Is this true? Also, can you please tell me a little bit about the work profile?

— Sadhvi Khullar

A. Notaries draft, verify, and attest various deeds and documents both judicial and non judicial such as conveyances and power of attorney concerning real estate, factories etc.

Notaries often bear witness to and certifying signatures on legal documents and of course you will be called upon to prepare a person’s last will and testament that we so often see hotly contested on TV soap operas. Sometimes the courts direct notaries to exercise the function of Pro Tem Judge (Temporary), Magistrate, Commissioner or Arbitrator. Appointment of a notary is a statutory appointment, which is done under the Notaries Act and the Rules.

To answer your first question, the eligibility for becoming a public notary is as follows: Advocates (civil/criminal/taxation/revenue) who have been practicing for the last 10 years and enrolled with the Bar Council of India and with a no-objection certificate from the concerned Bar Council are invited by the Judicial Branch of the State government.

However, you are in luck; applicants belonging either to SC, ST, OBC and women candidates need only seven years of legal practice.



Age factor

Q. What is the age limit / relaxation for exams conducted by the Staff Selection Commission?

— Maninder Jog

A. The age limit is different for different posts. Make sure you confirm this from the respective exam notices published in Employment News. Generally, the age limit is 18 - 27.

The relaxation in upper age limit is as follows: 5 years for SC/STs, 3 years for OBCs and 10 years for the physically challenged. For widows, divorced women and judicially separated women, the age limit is 35 for your category; 40 for SC/ST women and 38 for OBC women.

For ex-servicemen and departmental candidates, it’s best to consult the exam notification. You could also check for details on the SSC website:



Cap on immigration to US may increase outsourcing 
Sridhar Krishnaswami

The cap on skilled immigrants moving to the USA could force domestic companies to outsource research and development works to foreign countries, leading to a cut in employment and investment at home, a top American think-tank has warned.

"The inflow of foreign students, scientists and engineers has been a key factor that has enabled the US science and engineering workforce to grow faster than the USA is graduating native-born scientists and engineers," according to a report by the Rand Corporation. The report has underlined that the recent reduction in skilled immigrant visas (H1-B) has the potential to reduce the inflow of foreign science and engineering workers; and curtailing the supply of these scientists and engineers can lead US firms to outsource more research and development works to foreign countries and locate new facilities overseas.

"Rather than protecting jobs, this could lead to reduced investment and employment at home," the Rand report issued by Eurekalert, the science news service sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, says. Researchers found that foreign-born scientists and engineers are paid the same as native born, suggesting their quality is on a par with each other. The report shows that in recent years, about 70 percent of the foreign scientists and engineers who receive doctorate from US universities choose to remain here, but the stay rate could fall as research conditions and salaries improve abroad.

A positive point brought out by the report was that despite perceptions that the USA is losing its competitive edge, the nation remains the dominant leader in science and technology worldwide. "Much of the concern about the USA losing its edge as the world's leader in science and technology appears to be unfounded," says Titus Galama, co-author of the report and a management scientist at RAND.

"But the USA cannot afford to be complacent.

Effort is needed to make sure the nation maintains or even extends its standing," said the study. — PTI 



Bits & bytes
Frameboxx Animation & Visual Effects get accreditation

The animation and visual effects programme offered by Frameboxx Animation and Visual Effects has received accreditation from the world’s prestigious Anglia Ruskin University and its Cambridge School of Art. Under the tie-up, the Redboxx 2 course offered by Frameboxx Animation & Visual Effects across its 40 state-of-the-art academic facilities in the country, has been accredited and awarded 120 undergraduate credits by Anglia Ruskin University.

This is equivalent to two years of undergraduate study and the student can complete graduation in one year abroad, says Naveen Gupta, executive director and CEO of Frameboxx, according to a Press release.

Caroline Hyde, business development manager for cultural and creative industries from Anglia Ruskin University, says that this university’s accreditation provides a seal of approval for Frameboxx's programmes and gives future employers - the animation studios - the quality assurance they demand.

Frameboxx was set by two well-known names in the field of animation, Rajesh Turakhia and Naveen Gupta. 



Private sector in education
S.C. Dhall

The entry of the private sector into education, especially professional institutions, will make way for reforms in higher education. The teaching standard will improve owing to the alluring pay packages, infrastructure and other facilities provided by the private sector.

Research wings will certainly get due importance. The public and private sector partnership will be lucrative for the students as well as the faculty members. They both will get a brand image and better companies on campus can recruit a good number of quality faculty.

Owing to private interests the quality of education can be maintained. Private players can build facilities, foundations and retain faculty which government institutes keep losing because of low salary when compared to private B-schools.

The state of Gujarat has now caught the attention of top corporate groups planning big investment in the education sector.

Like, Reliance Industries is planning to set up a full-fledged university in the state. The company has acquired 800 acres on the outskirts of Vadodara for the proposed university. It will offer multiple courses, besides management and IT. The university will also tie up with two foreign universities.

The Adani group, which is also setting up a university, will establish an institute of infrastructure and Adani knowledge centre. The university will be a cluster of institutions hosting undergraduate as well as postgraduate courses in engineering, management and other fields, while the Adani knowledge centre will provide training for its own executives.

This is being done as a large number of students have started moving out of the state for pursuing higher studies. Thus, the state is losing around Rs 2500 crore a year.

Students of Gujarat are open to career opportunities not only in India but also abroad. Now, Gujarat is setting up all types of infrastructure with the help of private partnership so that the quality of education for long-term courses and short-term courses in the state is available to its students.

Currently, Gujarat lacks professional colleges. There are only 1050 seats in the medical segment available in the state as against over 21000 students clearing Class XII in the biology stream annually. Again, there are only 24000 seats in the engineering stream against 37000 students passing out from various colleges.

As per reports, 20,000 students go out of the state to pursue higher studies and pay an average fee of Rs 3 lakh a year plus heavy donations.

The Amity Foundation is also establishing its full-fledged campus in Ahmedabad, while in Vadodara, the Royale International School of Excellence is also in the process of setting up 10 institutes in the next three years.

Meanwhile, buoyed up by an increasing number of MBA aspirants from the state, the ICFAI business school is also planning to set up an institute in over 100 acres of land.

The state of Gujarat has tied up with the Gujarat State Biotech Mission for setting up the first public private partnership institute for clinical research. The institute will start, within a month, a postgraduate diploma in clinical research.



Smart Skills
Usha Albuquerque
Gem Packed

Fashion is all over the place — in newspapers, in the streets, in the malls, and staring at you from the TV screens all day!

This manifold growth in fashion awareness has brought with it a phenomenal demand for fashion products across the board, particularly jewellery, where the sparkle only seems to get brighter. In recent years, fashion consciousness has significantly altered the use of jewellery from the heavy, traditional ornament bought more for investment, to the fashion accessory of today. The new-age woman wants ornaments that are trendy and stylish, which she can wear to work, for outings and at home. Jewellery now makes its own fashion statement and has influenced a worldwide trend in the kind of jewellery being made and what constitutes it. Moreover, given the technology advances, this trend has certainly lent an attractive glitter to career prospects in the field, and spawned a demand for a professional breed of designers.

With as much costume jewellery as the precious and semi-precious one being produced and worn, no longer is its design and manufacture only in the hands of family jewellers, with goldsmiths hammering out age-old traditional products. Trained professionals have now entered the fray, and designs and materials are changing, making the gems and jewellery industry the second major foreign exchange earner for the country. This is a sophisticated field requiring an aesthetic ability and technical expertise, and with computer-aided technology is producing exquisite creations in virtual reality.

Work profile

In the glittering world of jewellery making, there are a variety of different jobs and careers, as it covers the design, manufacture and marketing of these items. Some individual jewellers design or make their own range. Following their own designs or those created by designers or customers, they do the handiwork required to produce a piece of jewellery. There may be others who do the finishing work, such as setting stones, polishing, or engraving. There are also large jewellery houses and export companies that employ designers to create new designs, or adapt old ones to ensure greater marketing prospects.

Jewellery designers design and make body adornments using a variety of materials, including gold, silver and precious stones. Of late, jewellery in platinum, copper and other metals is also gaining popularity. Some manufacturing firms use computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to facilitate product design and automate some steps in the mould-making and model-making process. CAD allows jewellers to create a virtual-reality model of a piece of jewellery. Using CAD, they can modify the design, change the stone, or try a different setting and see the changes on a computer screen before cutting a stone or performing other costly steps.

Ornamental value

Manufacture involves the identification, testing, grinding and polishing of gems to be used on the jewellery item. The actual making process of the metal is mainly mechanised at most large manufacturing units, using the CAM process for making the mould of the model. After the mould is made, it is easier for manufacturing firms to produce numerous copies of a given piece. New technology is also helping to produce jewellery of a higher quality at a reduced cost and in a shorter amount of time. Lasers are often used for cutting and improving the quality of stones, for applying intricate engraving or design work, and for inscribing personal messages or identification on jewellery, and for improving the quality and appearance of gem stones.

Gemologists and laboratory graders analyse, describe, and certify the quality and characteristics of gem stones to establish the weight, size, form and other related aspects.

Hone the stone

Gemology is essentially a scientific and technical field dealing with the study of gem stones. Gemologists may work in gemological laboratories or as quality control experts for retailers, importers, or manufacturers. Many jewellers and jewellery designers also study gemology in order to become familiar with the physical properties of the gem stones with which they work.

Appraisers carefully examine jewellery to determine its value, by researching the jewellery market, using reference books, auction catalogs, price lists, and the Internet. They may work for jewellery stores, appraisal firms, auction houses, pawnbrokers, or insurance companies. Many gemologists also become appraisers.

Marketing of jewellery is another new area for professionals. Those handling the marketing of jewellery, particularly the precious, semi-precious and costume jewellery have to be aware of fashion trends both in the international and domestic market.

Entry by design

A mixture of creative skills and commercial awareness is vital in producing original pieces of jewellery. The design process is complex and involves a series of stages, each requiring different abilities on the part of the designer. Regardless of the type of work done or the work setting, jewellers require a high degree of skill, precision, and attention to detail. Artistic ability and fashion consciousness are major assets, because jewellery must be stylish and attractive. The precise and delicate nature of jewellery work requires finger and hand dexterity, good hand-eye coordination, patience, and concentration.

There are several institutions offering training in gemology and jewellery designing. The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) at New Delhi and at its other centres, offers programmes in accessory design which also include jewellery designing.

SNDT Women’s University, Bombay, also offers a jewellery design course for school passouts, as does the Gems and Jewellery Export promotion Council, Jaipur, and the Jewellery Design and Technology Institute (JDTI), Noida.

Most of the courses not only hone the creative skills, but also teach students the skills of stone cutting, engraving and polishing, as also enamelling, silversmithing and stone setting.

Various institutes also offer courses and programmes in gemology. Programmes cover a wide range of topics, including the identification and grading of diamonds and gem stones. There are also short-duration courses in gemology, including jewellery casting, pearl identification diamond grading and valuation etc at the Gemmology Institute of India, Mumbai, and the Diamond Institute of India, Surat.

Training in basic jewellery making, gem cutting and stone setting is also being provided by the Jewellery Product Development Centre, New Delhi, and the Small Industries Service Institute, Chennai. Moreover, some jewellery houses hire and provide in-house training for their recruits. Many have facilities and earmark budgets for research and development in the field. These programmes also encourage students to apprentice with jewellery showrooms or family businesses.

The Gemmological Institute of America has recently opened a centre in Mumbai to educate Indian jewellery professionals on the global gemological industry. The GIA will offer graduate diploma programmes and diamond-grading classes, as well as distance learning programmes and courses.

Placement prospects

Although the manufacture of jewellery is the largest area requiring trained personnel, many jewellery houses are now employing designers too, for designing products that can cater to the current international demand. Many organisations are also taking in professionals for marketing and export of jewellery. Promoting and developing the business is crucial for the success as a jewellery designer. Much of the work here involves consultations with commissioning clients, discussing a client's requirements and formulating original ideas, sketching them out to help the client visualise the finished design. Other activities include: consulting with store buyers and suppliers, and researching jewellery trends and keeping an eye on the fashion world to keep abreast of developments in the industry.

With the entry of corporate houses in this sector, and foreign jewellery companies, there is a growing trend in the recruitment of professionals into a sector that was widely perceived as family owned and managed. Companies like the Tata Group’s Titan and Tanishq have made a name for themselves in the domestic as well as the international market. Foreign companies marketing jewellery and related accessories such as watches, bracelets, belts and pouches and object d’art, are also hiring designers. In recent years, various public sector trading corporations too, such as the Metals and Minerals Trading Corporation and the State Trading Corporation, have got involved in the marketing and export and hire trained professionals, including MBAs and jewellery designers.

Those interested in starting their own business need to first establish themselves and build a reputation for their work within the jewellery trade. The business is highly competitive, and those who plan to open their own stores should have sales experience, as well as knowledge of marketing and business management, besides design skills and a a strong knowledge of some very expensive products. Some jewellery professionals have been able to do that and are now into designing customized jewellery for sale to high- value individuals, and for exclusive boutiques.

Today, the Indian jewellery industry has an acknowledged position in the world market for high quality jewellery. It is growing at an estimated 55 per cent annually. The range of raw materials being used today is also exhaustive — from cheap and easily available stuff like paper, wood, terracotta, jute, to highly priced gold, silver and Swarovski crystals! Moreover, even the traditional family-run jewellery business is steering into the future with an under-40 generation at the helm. With new ideas and viewpoints, they have begun to professionalise the management of the companies, bringing in new ideas, materials and professional skills into the business. The Indian market alone today consumes 800 tonnes of gold a year.

So, for those fascinated by gems and jewellery, the present boom in the industry offers a sparkling future.

The writer is a noted career expert

Course clues

Most of the courses not only hone the creative skills, but also teach students the art of stone cutting, engraving and polishing, as also enamelling, silversmithing and stone setting.

There are also short-duration courses in gemology, including jewellery casting, pearl identification, diamond grading and valuation.

These programmes also encourage students to apprentice with jewellery showrooms or family businesses.

Moreover, some jewellery houses hire and provide in-house training to their recruits.

The JDTI, Noida, claims to have the only online project in India, wherein students get an opportunity to communicate and work for jewellery companies on the Web.



Fortnightly Quiz-312

The French connection\
The French connection

1. Which pharmaceutical giant of India was recently bought by a Japanese drug major?

2. When is World Day Against Child Labour observed?

3. Which city was recently voted as the best in the world to live on the basis of quality of life, transport system and environment etc?

4. In which country was the world's oldest church, dating back to 2000 years, unearthed recently?

5. Where is the National Defence Academy (NDA) situated?

6. Which zoo of the country will soon become the first one to house the world's fastest mammal cheetah?

7. What is the full form of WADA?

8. Which countries are hosting the Euro 2008 football tournament?

9. What is the biggest margin of runs by which India has defeated Pakistan in one day international cricket?

10. Name the two players who have won four successive men's French Open tennis titles.

Winners of quiz 311: The first prize by draw of lots goes to Mohit Kumar, X-A, KV, Air Force Station, Barnala-148101 Second: Dinesh Kumar, XI (non-med), Govt Sen Sec School, Fatehpur, dist Kangra-176053 Third: Maninder Singh, X, Jyoti Model School, Preet Nagar, Phagwara-144401

Answers to quiz 311: Daulat Beg Oldie; Phoenix; Gyanendra; BJP; Min Bahadur Sherchan; Nathu la; Vijay Tendulkar; May 31; Maharashtra; India & China; Cluster bomb; Manchester United; Oliver Kahn; Ricky Ponting, Allan Border & Steve Waugh; Rajasthan Royals

Cash awards of Rs 400, 300 and 200 are given to the first, second and third prize winners, respectively. These are sent at the school address.

Name ……………….……………….....……

Class ………………..………….......….……

School address …….………….....…….…

Note: Kindly mention the pincode of your place to facilitate the delivery of the prize money.

Answers can also be sent at

A clarification: Due to a computer error, the names of winners of quiz no. 310 and answers were wrongly published. The actual winners were Navita Panwar, VIII, GMS (girls), Dadahu, Sirmaur(HP)-173022. Second: Swati Sharma, XII (commerce), Puja Modern Sr Sec School, Pipli, district Kurukshetra-132118

Third: RaviKumar, X-A, Saint SoldierInternational School, 28-B, Chandigarh-160002

Answers to quiz no. 310 were: Nargis; Sichuan;Dmitry Medvedev; Dr TessyThomas;India;Kolkata; Ratan Tata; 1914; Mogadishu; Bharat Earth Movers Limited; NTPC Limited; Argentina; India; Jhulan Goswami; LaxmipatiBalaji, Amit Mishra& Makhaya Ntini

Answers can also be sent at

— Tarun Sharma