Tuesday, August 15, 2000,
Chandigarh, India
L U D H I A N A   S T O R I E S


Their grit turned crisis into opportunity
From Ruchika Mohindra
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — It was certainly a change of fortune for the teeming population of India which had to undergo the pain and agony of Partition. Even as despair and displacement of people due to the country's division on religious lines led to a fall to the bottom, for quite a few others, the freedom brought unbound wealth that they had never imagined while living in the other part of the country.

The city has, over the years, turned into one of the most prosperous towns in the north after Delhi. Of the total population of over 30 lakh, around 90 per cent comprises migrants from Pakistan and are more or less responsible for the city's prosperity.

A major part of the hosiery industry is controlled by the Jain community, which has made the city its home after Partition. The cycle and cycle parts industry is controlled by migrants from across the border.

Take the case of Mr Dayanand Munjal, who laid the foundation stone of Hero Cycles. The third of a total of six sons of a small-time commission agent of foodgrain in Kamalia subdivision of Lyallpur district in Pakistan, he had been working in the army CSD in Ferozepur on a salary of Rs 25 a month.

His elder son, Mr Vijay Munjal, recalling the earlier days of struggle, told TNS that after Partition, the six brothers had shifted to different parts in North India and had taken up small jobs. "My father and his younger brother, Mr Om Prakash Munjal, shifted to Amritsar and started trading in cycle parts. They later shifted to Ludhiana and started manufacturing cycle parts on a small scale. Hero Cycles was born after a lot of hard work and struggle in 1956. At that time, the total output was 25 bicycles a day." The group is now worth over Rs 4000 crore, has 12 units and employs over 7000 people.

This is not an isolated case of rags-to-riches story of migrants from Pakistan. Another major player in the cycle manufacturing business from Ludhiana, Avon Cycles, owned by the Pahwa family, is also a similar tale of phenomenal success. From being small-time manufacturers of sport equipment in Sialkot in Pakistan to having Rs 400 crore business, they have come a long way.

Recalls Mr Harmohinder Singh Pahwa, one of the Directors of the company, "Mr Hansraj Pahwa, Chairman of the group, had a modest beginning and was initially manufacturing the fork and frame of a bicycle. Now other than producing all the cycle parts and raw material, our company is also manufacturing finished goods and exports to the tune of Rs 70 crore are done every year." The group has recently been presented with the Golden Trading House Award by the Union Ministry of Commerce.

There is another example of determination and grit that has made one of the biggest players in the textile industry out of an ordinary commission agent dealing in cotton, hailing from Khanga Dogra, a town now in Pakistan. Lala Hansraj Jain, founder of Oswal Fabrics, had shifted along with 2000 other Jain families to Ludhiana after losing whatever they had during the turmoil that followed Partition. According to Mr Kimti Lal Jain, the total turnover of the group is now Rs 30 crore. The Jains had nothing in their hands, except the skill and will to succeed.

In contrast to these success stories, there are some tales of failure. Mr R.R. Katyal, the son of a rich landlord from Jabuna village in Jhang district in Pakistan, had to face a lot of hardship and was forced to work as a labourer to make both ends meet. After losing a few relatives and all the belongings, his father ran for life and arrived in India to escape the fury of rioting mobs. Little did he know that his troubles had only started. It was literally a great fall from an affluent life to a life as ordinary as that of a refugee begging and seeking shelter here and there.


Independence means no interference

For the women of independent India appears to have graduated from collective freedom to individual liberty. It appears that in today's world everybody is concerned about his/her own independence. Independence according to the women is a measure of power and authority to do whatever they want to do according to their interest and abilities. Their collective voices embody the spirit of individual freedom.

No matter whether she is a school going girl or a collegiate, a housewife or a professional, a wife or a mother, independence for the woman means not being answerable to anyone.

For the Y2k generation girls independence means no interference in their life. They demand every right to decide what sacrifices and adjustments they want to make. They really cannot tolerate any sort of interference in their life.

Ritika Bajaj (24), who is working as an executive with a local firm, believes she is independent because she is financially independent. And that according to her is very important for any woman.

Ashwin Mehra (33), who is working in a travel agency, feels that she has been able to make the most of her freedom without any misuse. She adds further, "Women are doing lot more than men these days, so they should enjoy equal freedom as men do."

Kushi Arora, a doctor by profession, is keen on making name and serving the diseased. She points out, "I want to make my own identity without attaching a husband's or father's name." Mikki Bansal defines independence as freedom of choice. According to her every women should be free to do what she wants and free to become whatever she wishes to.

And women today are really confident about themselves and have the ability to do what they want. Late working hours have become a reality. And professional women of today like doctors, journalists and business personalities are mentally prepared for the same.

Swati Thakur (20), a nurse in a hospital, says "Personally and professionally I feel as free as my male colleagues". 

— Surbhi Bhalla


A mute witness to history

From Vimal Sumbly
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — Amidst the dense and thickly populated Field Ganj area here stands a dilapidated mosque which has been a mute witness to some turbulent moments of history. The Jama Masjid Choon Gharan, now called Field Ganj, may be presenting a desolate look today, but it was not always so. The mosque had remained a centre of hectic activity during the freedom struggle.

The mosque is managed by the grandchildren of Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, a leading freedom fighter who spent considerable time of his life in jail with various nationalist leaders. He was jailed for the first time in 1932 when he resorted to individual satyagraha on the call of Mahatma Gandhi.

For Atiq-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, the mosque has a sentimental attachment. So have thousands of others who have grown up in and around this mosque. Mr Rehman remarks, “It leads to nostalgic memories about our past when things were quite different from what they are today”.

Ludhiana at the time of Partition was a Muslim majority city. However, Hindus and Sikhs were not in less number either. The population ratio was slightly in favour of Muslims. But the three communities lived in peace and harmony. But there were some exceptional cases when the British managed to create a chasm between the two communities. So much so that water was served to people as “Hindu water”and “Muslim water” at the railway station. But the saner voices always prevailed.

The Rehmans have no regrets of staying back in India. In fact, their association with nationalist leaders like Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Maulana Azad and Asaf Ali and deep faith in the promise of secularism that held them back in India. And Rehmans believe that more or less the promise was kept.

The mosque had been occupied in 1947 after the partition when most of the Muslims migrated to Pakistan. The Rehmans had also shifted to Delhi, where they had been provided accommodation near Jama Masjid, by no less a person than the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The mosque had been converted into a Gurdwara. However, in 1956 the then Chief Minister of Punjab, Mr Pratap Singh Kairon, got it vacated and regular prayers started from the same year. The Rehmans were also prevailed upon to return to their native city and they started management of the mosque from that year only.

Thus started the process of resettlement of Muslims in the city again. Today the Muslim population of the city is believed to be about half a million, most of them belonging to the migrant labour class from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. A good number of Muslims are in trade and business also. However, according to Mr Rehman, the Muslims are economically backward as compared to other communities.

The mosque remains the centre of all social gatherings of the community. Currently the mosque has a seating capacity of about 6000 people. Every Friday more than 6000 people throng the place to offer the special Friday prayers. In the absence of an Idgah here, the Id prayers are also offered in the mosque. Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman (Jr) said that all roads outside the mosque are closed on the day of Id to accommodate people.

Although the mosque trust owns several shops, the mosque has not so much income, which could help it to be maintained properly. Maulana Habib said the shops had been rented out four and five decades ago and were fetching poor rent of Rs 50 to Rs 100 per month. Besides, there is no other source which could help it to be maintained.

It is from this mosque that the Junior Habib claimed that their grandfather had launched a campaign against the British and supported freedom fighters like Bhagat Singh and Suhbash Chander Bose. Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman was also charged with providing shelter to Bhagat Singh.

The family had inherited the spirit of nationalism from ancestors. In 1857, the British had forfeited about 140 acres of land belonging to the family for their involvement in the 1857 uprising. The family has not been compensated since then.


Appalling degradation of values

By Hazara Singh

I was born in the part of Punjab which went to Pakistan after Partition. My first painful memory is of the sudden realisation that all non-Muslims became unwanted creatures in that dominion because a sinister campaign was being engineered to drive them out or to annihilate them. The state-sponsored carnage, arson and abductions assumed the form of a catastrophe because minorities were not to be tolerated in Rawalpindi Division, to begin with, so that preparations for the crusade to be launched for grabbing Jammu and Kashmir remained a secret.

I reached Amritsar in the first week of September, where hordes of uprooted people were swarming. I happened to be walking a few yards behind three persons who were grumbling that they had been hungry since their arrival in India. I had about a rupee and a half in my pocket. I offered them a rupee coin. Despite being hungry, they declined to accept it, stating that they had pledged not to accept any charity, but to toil to sustain themselves. It was the same determination which transformed a land of scarcity into an enviable plenty within two decades through the green revolution.

A few cynical British politicians had been predicting that India, inhabited by a populace plagued by communal animosity, inhibited by superstitious beliefs and torn by caste conflicts, would head towards a civil war within a decade after the end of their rule over the subcontinent. They regretted their ominous warning when they witnessed India emerging as a sovereign democratic republic based on pillars of social equality and human dignity.

Our generation worked hard for achieving these aspirations, as we believed in the dictum that nations require perspiration for their reconstruction. Aram haram hai was our commitment. During the colonial rule, many of us did not get opportunities conforming to our respective worth, yet after the dawn of Independence, avenues for career building began to be opened. We reared our next generation to blend requisite inspiration with perspiration for raising a modern society.

Leaders of the freedom movement served as a source of inspiration for the entire colonial world to liberate itself from imperialism. The death knell of colonialism had been sounded and within years, almost the entire Asia and Africa became free.

The history of the freedom movement has been projected in an incomplete form. The role of revolutionaries, martyrs and the Indian National Army has been underplayed. The value of an achievement is lowered when it is stated to be a gift from the rulers. Selfless social workers began to be pushed out by unprincipled politicians, dynastic manipulators and underworld lords. Criminalisation of politics has started holding our democratic set-up to ransom.

Though our agricultural produce and industrial output have kept increasing, our population has been growing in alarming proportions, which is diluting the fruits of planning, with the result that citizens of this largest democracy are still amongst the poorest. We have one-third of the strength of the scientific and technical manpower of the world. At the same time, India has almost half of illiterates inhabiting the globe.

An inspiration, termed as tryst with destiny at the dawn of freedom, has degenerated into an appalling degradation of values. If we still nourish the urge to live in the land "where mind is free and the head is held high", the seven social sins — politics without principles, wealth without work, pleasure without conscience, education without character, commerce without morality, science without humanity, and worship without sacrifice — against which the Father of the Nation had cautioned us, need to be resisted.


Fraud: PAU forms panel
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — Punjab Agricultural University is reported to have constituted a committee to probe into the charges of fraud by some university officials, including an executive engineer.

The university has asked the committee to submit its report within one month.

The inquiry is being made on the demand of the Non-Teaching Employees Union.

Mr S.K.Bhatia, officiating Registrar, said any action could be taken only after the submission of the report.

The officiating Vice-Chancellor, Dr K.S. Aulakh, said he had learnt about the case only recently and was not in a position to make any comments. 


Mentally challenged kids celebrate I-Day
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — Students of Nirdosh, a school for mentally challenged children run by the Inner Wheel Club, celebrated Raksha Bandhan, Independence Day and Janamashtmi here today. The function started with a dance to the tune of Dil diya hai, jaan bhi denge, ae watan tere liye. They also danced to the tune of Taal se taal mila. The teachers helped them to perform dance numbers.

Ms Parveen Narang said the school came into existence in 1980. It was the brainchild of Ms Santosh Munjal and Ms Pratibha Prasad. There were 15 students to start with. They borrowed two rooms of Deepak Hospital and employed two teachers.

While the standard Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of a normal person is between 100 and 120, the children in this school have IQ from 30 to 60. Due to this handicap, their motor activity is affected. Muscle power is weak. Some of them cannot even speak properly while others lack motor coordination.

Ms Bubble Sandhu, the chief guest, wife of the Deputy Commissioner, Mr S.K. Sandhu, appreciated the dedication of the members towards the welfare of the children. She tied a rakhi to a student and the other women followed suit. She also donated Rs 20,000 to the school. She was taken around to see the work of the students, like painted pots and candles.

Some students, after getting vocational training from the school, have started working. Two boys are employed in a box factory and two girls are working in a beauty parlour. One boy has put up a candle unit with his brother and another has taken to farming.

Doctors at the DMC are giving free services. Children who have epilepsy, those who are very violent and those suffering from periods of depression are given treatment at concessional rates at the DMC.

The children have been given identity cards, which help them travel free of cost, with one attendant, by air, by train or by bus. They are also trying to get a stipend of Rs 200 for each child. Ms Narang said there were around 100 children on the waiting list and the school lacked funds.



YC flays price rise, lawlessness
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The District Youth Congress today lambasted the SAD (B)-BJP government in Punjab for the increase in prices of essential commodities and the spurt in criminal activities by organised gangs all over the state. Addressing a party meeting in Jawahar Nagar locality here, the DYC president, Mr Pawan Diwan, said that the price rise had crossed all limits and common people in Punjab were finding if difficult to make both ends meet.

Giving examples, he said kerosene, which was a lifeline for the poor and was earlier available at Rs 3 a litre, was now selling at Rs 7 a litre. Similarly, various other essential commodities had gone out of reach of the working classes and people in the lower income groups. The government had played a cruel joke upon the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by the discontinuation of shagun scheme and inordinate delay in sanction and disbursal of old-age pensions.

Mr Hans Raj Gagat, president of the Punjab Municipal Employees Coordination Committee, criticised the government for its “anti-poor and anti-people policies” and for pursuing such policies that were detrimental to the interests of employees. He also demanded representation for Valmiki community in the city in the next assembly elections.

The PCC secretary, Mr Krishan Kumar Bawa, flayed the government and the law enforcement agencies for increase in incidence of murder, rape, armed robbery and the terror of kale kachhewale gangs all over the state. He said the people were living in an atmosphere of uncertainty and insecurity while the police and the administration was watching helplessly. If immediate corrective measures were not taken, the situation might deteriorate and go out of hands of the government, he cautioned.


I-Day: ritual for politicians?
From Kuldip Bhatia

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The 54th Independence Day of the nation would be observed in the city with the same 'typical indifference' the Ludhianvis are known for. While the administration is duty bound to organise a government function on the day and hectic preparations were on for the district-level celebrations, the political parties and their important functionaries also take advantage of the occasion to propagate the policies and programmes of their respective parties.

But the common man in the city, the employees (barring those who have been assigned duties at the function), intellectuals, professionals, as also the enterprising Ludhianvis who have excelled in the fields of trade, commerce, industry, exports would carry on with their routine as usual, and the national day for them, would be like any other day, or a holiday, for that matter.

A few old-timers, to whom Ludhiana Tribune spoke to, attributed the general apathy and indifference of the masses to such national festivals to the selfish and self-seeking politicians who have lowered the dignity and sanctity of these occasions over the years and have created an impression among the people that Independence Day and Republic Day were mere tamashas (stunts) for meaningless political speeches.

The district-level Independence Day function is being organised at the Government College for Boys grounds this time in place of Guru Nanak Stadium, the usual venue, where a synthetic track is being laid. In addition to the routine arrangements for the function, in which Punjab Local Bodies Minister Balramji Das Tandon will unfurl the national flag, the security measures have to be tightened in the wake of a bomb blast which rocked the room of the District and Sessions Judge here on Friday night.

The political parties, including BJP, Congress and factions of the Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) are also flexing their muscles to hold a number of functions in the city to mark the day. While the details of the functions to be organised by the ruling SAD were not known, District Congress Committee chief Surinder Dawar and the District Youth Congress chief Pawan Diwan would preside over a score of functions in different parts of the city and unfurl the Tricolour. Similarly, BJP district unit chief Harbans Lal Sethi and the party legislator Sat Pal Gosain are slated to participate in the functions organised by party on the occasion.

A political conference is also scheduled to be held at Issru, near Khanna in this district, the native place of Karnail Singh, martyr of Goa, in which almost all political parties would set up their separate pandals and attempt to woo the people with their past 'achievements' and future promises.

Those participating in their respective party functions include Chief Minister Parkash Singh Badal, his friend-turned-foe Gurcharan Singh Tohra of the SHSAD, state Congress chief Amarinder Singh, SAD (Amritsar) chief Simranjit Singh Mann and other important functionaries of the CPI, the CPI-M and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).


Promoting theme parties among Ludhianvis

A few decades back, Cliff Richard crooned in his mellifluous voice: You are a theme for a dream. Of course! He meant his lady friend. But you can really go and have any theme of your dream for a party. Your party need not be a routine affair, food, lights, music and dance. You wish that you could have a party in Goa or in the sand dunes of Rajasthan or even underwater. You name it and Vishwadeep Bali and Ashish Mehta, the two young persons from XTC, will turn your dream of a theme party into a reality.

These two young men, armed with their hotel management degrees, worked in Delhi hotels and found the concept of theme parties quite interesting. They thought that Ludhiana is a happening place where people are always looking for some unique and sensational things in their parties. So they packed their bags and made Ludhiana their base.

They have tied up with Paras Decorators and brought the concept of theme parties to Ludhiana. In the city, the people have favoured Rajasthan theme and Goan theme most of all.

Right from the invitation, food, ambience, the dress of the waiter, music, everything is Rajasthani. The kachi ghori where a man gets in cloth ghori and dance sets the mood. A small Rajasthani boy dances to the tunes of its folk music. Its speciality daal, baati, churma will be there. Even the cocktails and mocktails (non-alcoholic drinks) will assume Rajasthani names like sand dune martini and the dishes will be called pratap special etc.

The Goan theme literally transfers you to the white sands of a Goan beach, coconut trees, fishing nets and expanse of blue sea. The whole thing is seen to be believed. They have the cut-outs of trees and then it is the play of light and sound, a very highly specialised job, which takes over. They say, "One can hear the lapping of the sea waves, the fishermen song. In fact, we can create such an authentic Goan effect that people begin to think they are in Goa".

"We have a lot of themes up our sleeves like underwater theme where we can produce the effect of deep sea and deep sea animals. Even the waiters will be dressed as fishermen. Of course, the food like giant crabs, lobsters will be served. You move around and you will hear the music of the hump back blue whale. It is deft use of lighting and sound. We require 18 to 24 hours to get all equipment, light and sound for the party. It is a very laborious job, but satisfaction and appreciation of the clients at the end is the best reward.

These sort of parties do not come cheap and if one can afford it, why not?

The other interesting themes can be jungle theme where an invitation comes on a paper resembling bark from Tarzan. Dress code is also mentioned, but Ashish says, "Most of the time the guests disregard the dress code if the party is large, but in a small party guests do adhere to it. The guests have to dress up as tribals, at least XTC provide authentic background. While a guest may be holding his drink and walking, suddenly he may be startled to hear a roar of a lion from the tree behind him".

Jail theme where an invitation is from Phoolan Devi sets the mood of the party in that spirit only. The waiters are dressed like prisoners and others are dressed up as policemen. There are silver and gold anniversary theme parties where the whole ambience is silver or gold, respectively.

Vishwadeep said these kind of parties are more popular in Delhi and Mumbai where there is more cosmopolitan crowd and they are more receptive to bolder themes.

— Asha Ahuja


Blast haunts court complex
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The bomb blast in the court of the District and Sessions Judge on Friday night, which damaged the dilapidated court room building, continued to haunt lawyers, judicial officers and visiting public today, when the courts reopened after the weekend.

The shadow of fear and apprehension, created by the powerful bomb blast, caused by a crude improvised explosive device, was quite visible in the district courts complex. The mere thought of the havoc the bomb blast could have caused, had the bomb exploded on a working day, was enough to send shivers up one's spine, remarked a lawyer.

The court rooms wore a deserted look and not much work was conducted. The Young Lawyers Forum had given a call for strike today in the district courts. Most of the lawyers did not appear in the courts, claimed a spokesperson of the forum.

The District Bar Association did not formally call for a strike. In its meeting held today, a resolution was adopted, in which the bomb blast was condemned and the government was urged to step up security.


Five arrested for gambling
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The police has arrested five persons for gambling and recovered Rs 24,070 from them.

According to the information available, the CIA staff led by its in charge, SI Gurpreet Singh, launched an operation against gambling in public. As part of this, five persons — Inderjit Singh, Devinder Bir, Anand Kumar, Balwinder Jain and Vinod Kumar — were arrested, while they were gambling near the Jagraon bridge.

All five have been arrested under Sections 13, 3 and 67 of the Gambling Act.

Poppy husk seized

The police has arrested two persons and seized 76 kg of poppy husk from them.

According to the information available, Makhan Singh and Davinder, both residents of Nawanshahr, were travelling in a Contessa car. The Salem Tabri police led by SI Jaswinder Singh had laid a naka near Hotel Amaltas and the accused were arrested from there.

A case under Sections 15, 61 and 85 of the NDPS Act has been registered.Back


1 held in Aman murder case
From Our Correspondent

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The Khanna police today claimed to have achieved a major breakthrough in the Aman Sood murder case and one person, allegedly involved in the gruesome crime, was arrested by the police.

The SSP of Khanna police district, Mr R.L. Bhagat, informed that one Budh Parkash, alias Kuki, a resident of Mehar Street, Khanna, was arrested on the basis of certain clues and information which pointed towards his involvement in the abduction of the child for ransom and later killing the victim.

The accused was produced in the court of Mr J.S. Bhinder, Judicial Magistrate, who remanded him in police custody for 10 days.Back


Forum to mobilise industrial units for bandh
From A.S. Prashar
Tribune News Service

LUDHIANA, Aug 14 — The Punjab Industry and Trade Forum has begun mobilisation for the Punjab bandh to be observed on August 23 in protest against the hike in power tariff, the increase in the minimum charges for the steel and furnace industry and the compulsory weekly off for the industry in the state.

According to Mr Harish Khanna, President of the forum which, he claims, represents nearly 25 trade and industrial bodies in the city, efforts are being made to involve more industrial organisations in the state in this movement so as to maximise its impact. He regretted that certain bodies tended to formulate their separate action plans instead of coming together on a single platform. He complained that the government, too, was following the policy of divide and rule and the industry and certain industrial bodies had fallen a prey to the government machinations.

“It is not the question of leadership. We don’t mind if someone else wants to head the organisation as long as the demands of the trade and industry are properly highlighted,” he said.

He pointed out that the forum in conjunction with a host of leading industrial and trade associations of the state had planned to hold a mass protest rally in front of the office of the Chairman of the PSEB at Patiala to register their protest against the 8 per cent to 26 per cent hike in power tariff announced by the board with effect from July 1. However, one day prior to that, the forum was informed through court orders that the electricity board had obtained a stay order against the rally.

The forum strongly condemned the power tariff hike on industrial, commercial and domestic consumers and wanted its immediate withdrawal. If the state government was not willing to withdraw it, it should defer its implementation and hold parleys with all members of industrial panels for arriving at some consensus on the issue which was acceptable to all members vis-a-vis the industry, trade and the people of the state.

He argued that as per the statistical figures submitted by the board to the industrial panel, the cost of electricity per unit to the board did not exceed Rs 2.40 which, of course, included the incidence of 18% transmission losses (audit discovers these losses at 31%). If provision for 12% return on equity and 3% return on their fixed capital was also made then this cost would be Rs 2.53 per unit. As per the rates prevailing before the hike, on an average industry was paying Rs 2.80 per unit, domestic Rs 2.63 per unit and the commercial Rs 3.25 per unit. “Besides this, we are also paying 11 paise per unit as electricity duty to the state, 6 paise per unit as fuel cess and 4 paise per unit as octroi duty.

The board was supplying 8200 million unmetered units per annum in the state at a total cost of Rs 1800 crore. Free electricity to agriculture sector, 31% transmission and distribution losses, power theft and free electricity to the board officials formed part of this supply. If at all the board made sincere efforts to convert these units into metered supply, it would not require to raise power tariff during the next three years.

The state government was aware that the only incentive available to industry and trade in Punjab was the inexpensive electricity. By increasing tariff and striving to bring it at par with the other states, it would only mean divesting the industry of the state of the special incentive and industry and trade would thus be forced to resort to large-scale migration to other states.

Punjab was at a disadvantage due to geographical location since the raw material required for industry was available in far-flung areas and the end products had also to be transported to the remote areas of the country. Transportation charges thus incurred by the industry only added to the cost of production.

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