|Wednesday, June 28, 2000,
SIACHENS ON THE BORDER
maniacs on the loose
Kashmir: what next?
AT a Press conference in New Delhi on Thursday Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah said that the autonomy issue should be thoroughly discussed with the Centre and that his government had no plans to pass a resolution in the Assembly on the issue. Three days after this reassuring announcement, he saw to it that the Legislative Assembly adopted the State Autonomy Committee report. This is typical of Dr Farooq Abdullah. He changes his postures and responses so frequently that it often becomes a herculean task to know exactly where he stands. No one can be sure about what he is up to and for what purpose. His has surely been a calculated gambit in the light of the mixed signals emanating from the Centre, especially on holding talks with Hurriyat leaders. This must have alarmed the Chief Minister since a dialogue with the leaders of the All-Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC) could upset his political calculations and threaten his very survival. Perhaps, he has over-reacted and acted hastily to build anti-Centre hysteria in the name of greater autonomy. He ought to have realised that autonomy is a highly sensitive issue and that it cannot be played around without grave risks. He has, of course, balanced his radical stance by swearing by the state's accession to India and asking Pakistan to stop cross-border terrorism to pave the way for a dialogue for the restoration of peace in the region.
Dr Abdullah excels in the art of playing double games. All the same, it must be conceded that the NDA government at the Centre has not covered itself with glory either. In the absence of any firm direction and clear strategies, it has allowed the situation to drift both in the valley and beyond. The Centre's failure, in fact, is total. First, a coordinated policy is nowhere in sight. Second, the Prime Minister's Office and the Union Home Ministry have often given the impression of working at cross purposes. This is a poor commentary on the manner Kashmir affairs have been handled by the BJP and its allies. Equally disquieting is the latest report of over 280 persons, most of them Bakerwals (nomads), having migrated to Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir (PoK) from the Mendhar area of the Poonch sector. Whose failure is this? Apparently, housekeeping on the Indian side of Kashmir has been awfully bad. For that matter, the failures of the Farooq Abdullah government are equally dismaying. He only knows how to play to the gallery without caring for how to tackle the basic issues facing the people and the state as a whole. In fact, foreign mercenaries and militants have become convenient tools of the varied groups in Jammu and Kashmir to promote their narrow interests. Here a few inconvenient questions can be raised. How is it that the question of autonomy has suddenly become a matter of life and death in Kashmir? How is that we have failed to tell the Kashmiris that J & K already has more autonomy than any other state? If Kashmir has become a problem, it is because we have preferred to live in a make-believe world. The question of autonomy is, after all, a product of an evolving Centre-state relationship, of a process of give and take.
Perhaps, nothing is lost
yet. The Kashmir situation can still be retrieved
provided New Delhi works out a coherent policy and
rearranges its priorities. It should also be sure of what
it wishes to achieve and for whose advantage. The key
problem in the state is one of misgovernance and
non-governance. Here, the Farooq Abdullah government is
as much to blame as the rulers in New Delhi. Looking
beyond, it also needs to be appreciated that there can be
no shortcuts to the process of normalcy in the state. If
peaceful answers have to be evolved to silence the guns
of the militants and the mercenaries, then there has to
be a precise and determined approach to the whole issue.
More than autonomy, Jammu and Kashmir today needs a
pluralistic approach, and not communal angularities, to
tackle the basic problems facing the people there.
Language of life
MAN took a decisive step on Monday towards finally realising his oldest dream: to lead a healthy life. On that day researchers presented to humankind a rough draft of the genetic code, which President Clinton described as the language in which God created life. It is a compilation of over three billion bits of chemical information about the composition of all 23 pairs of chromosomes. They are written in four letters, which stand for the chemical names Genes are in the chromosomes and they contain hereditary instructions and direct the formation of proteins which a cell uses to function, repair, defend itself or to divide. That, incidentally, is what life is all about. If the sequencing of what scientists call the base pairs is fully mapped and the role of the proteins clearly understood, man will wrench from nature its stunningly unique but stubbornly unyielding secret of why certain men are vulnerable to certain diseases. That is the door to enter the eerie world of proteins, in such small quantities that only an electronic sensor can detect them, which make some people hairy and some bald, some tall and others short. That is the complete chemical map of life and when man draws it all, he will be one step close to mastering the technique of manipulating the base pairs to earn immunity from a variety of diseases. That is the dazzling hope of a whole new set of medicines and an as-yet-unthinkable pre-birth testing and treatment to shield a child from the disabilities it will otherwise be born with. All this will not happen tomorrow. One cautious British expert ventured that it would take another century for that stage to materialise. But as another jubilant biologist added, in mankinds ancient dream of disease-free life, a century is equivalent to a year in an individuals life.
A leader of the powerful
British team, which took part in the 16-nation, nine-year
Human Genome Project, has compared the completion of the
rough genetic code to mans landing on the moon in
1969. That only underlines the technological breakthrough
which the code indeed is. In terms of what it means to
the entire community of human beings, the code is more
like the invention of the printing press. That crude
contraption five centuries ago revolutionised mans
perception of himself. It has brought information and
knowledge into the domain of humanity. The genetic code
too will bring health of an undreamt of quality to
everyone, rather most of them. The immediate prospect is
a possible cure for cancer. In a few rapid moves doctors
should be able to spot the exact spot in the long chain
of base pairs which triggers it. And a drug can be
synthesised very soon. Mr Clinton talked of conquering
cancer in his lifetime, saying his grandchildren would
know cancer only as a celestial body. It has been a long
journey for man. Always dreading illness, which prevents
him from using his full physical potential, man first
depended on witch-doctors; then came the very long period
of herbal medicines and their refinement and dominance
before chemical drugs edged them out. Now man is intently
looking at his genetic chemical imbalances to lead him to
a brave new world. The present generation and maybe the
next one will not benefit fully by the drafting of the
chain of base pairs of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). But
it is a wonderful feeling that some day man will play
God, and perhaps more benignly and less capriciously.
Babe of Test cricket
THE fact that Bangladesh was granted full membership of the exclusive club of Test cricket playing nations suggests that Mr Jagmohan Dalmiya was shown the courtesy of having his way before stepping down as President of the International Cricket Council. Although the image of the game has been distorted beyond recognition because of betting and match-fixing scandal, the conferment of Test status has understandably resulted in tumultuous celebrations among the followers of the game in the country. If the game survives the current controversy sparked by Hansie Cronje's admission of guilt, the entry of Bangladesh would give Asia the deserved distinction of "producing" four of the 10 Test playing nations in the world. Although England is recognised as the mother of modern cricket, it has failed to inspire any other European nation to play the game with the passion with which it is played in the Indian subcontinent. In fact, the game is struggling for survival in its "mother land" because of the popularity of football among the "grassroot Englishmen". Nevertheless, Bangladesh's entry deserves a qualified welcome. It may have failed to get full recognition had Mr Dalmiya not advocated its case with the passion which he usually puts into any assignment he undertakes. The nine-nation mini World Cup Tournament in 1998 in Dhaka was his brainchild for promoting Bangladesh's claim for full ICC membership. But there are those who believe that the rules for entry to the Test cricket club were bent and that Bangladesh still has a long way to go to justify even the "one-day" status granted to it because of Mr Dalmiya. The charge that Pakistan had deliberately lost the World Cup match which Bangladesh claims it won fair and square remains unproven. But it has given the detractors of Mr Dalmiya the opening to somewhat spoil the party mood in Dhaka. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina while reacting to the news of Bangladesh having become the 10th country to play Test cricket too acknowledged Mr Dalmiya's contribution to Bangla cricket.
Never mind what the
killjoys may have to say about the World Cup match
against Pakistan and the extraordinary interest of the
former boss of international cricket in rooting for
Bangladesh. An honest assessment of the case would show
that the country is not yet ready for standing up to the
rigours of playing a five-day game. Sri Lanka was made to
literally sweat it out before it was accorded the right
to play Test cricket. Although Sri Lankan cricketers were
in great demand by county teams in England, they went
through the usual grind. They were allowed entry to the
exclusive club only after they had proven their worth in
unofficial Tests. How many Bangladeshi cricketers have
played top division country cricket in England and how
many unofficial Tests, and against which country, for
them to justify their country's elevation to full
membership of the ICC? The argument that even mediocre
cricketers from rival teams would get an opportunity to
improve their career statistics while playing against
Bangladesh is not without substance. The challenge before
the babe of Test cricket is prove the prophets of doom
wrong. Sheikh Hasina has promised support for building
the infrastructure. But given the country's poor economic
health, the choice may boil down to raising food for the
poor or the level of the game of cricket to acceptable
ON THE BORDER
IF segments of Indias land borders were to be pieced together, the sector loosely described as the Indo-Tibet border, manned by the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), would stand apart placed as it is amidst one of the harshest border terrains anywhere in the world. From Daulat Beg Oldi in the Karakorram to Lipulekh Pass in the Garhwal Himalayas, this sector of the border comprises roughly a 2000 km stretch ranged over steep ridges, gorges and mountain passes. The ITBP personnel who patrol this border are termed the Himalayan Sentinels though they are hardly in the national focus, and there is little by way of recognition they receive.
Indeed, there is a great deal of smugness about this border and stunning ignorance about the operational conditions which prevail here. Located in the Karakorram and Himalayan mountains, several of the border posts and those manning them face natures full fury comparable to the conditions under which the Indian Army operates in Siachen. While the defenders of Siachen are rightly provided the wherewithal to meet the challenge of nature, in contrast even a fraction of this back-up for the ITBP force is lacking. Have the powers that be forgotten the Himalayan Sentinels?
Take a fuller look at this sector of the Indian border. It is divided by the ITBP into three sub-sectors J & K, Himachal and Uttar Pradesh. The toughest border posts from the operational point of view are located in the J & K sub-sectors northern part. It is here that the 17,560 feet Track junction and 16,640 feet high Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) are located. Border posts in the other sectors range from 9000 ft to 16,000 ft altitude. But the point is that in reaching out to these posts the Himalayan Sentinels have to cross passes at 18,000 ft altitude. It is in the HP sub-sector that the stern Gangtang Bralam post is located, but in reaching this outpost one has to negotiate the 18,000 ft high Yamrang La.
In the Garhwal and Kumaon region of Uttar Pradesh is the 14,800 ft high Topidunga post. The posts in this sector are very difficult to reach one has to walk five to six days on a difficult route. Here Lipulekh Pass is the last of high border passes placed on the way to Kailash-Mansarovar. Uncertainty dogs one all along, the most treacherous being frequent landslides which accompany torrential rains a curse of the region. Just short of Lipulekh Pass is the Kailash ridge which affords a grand view of the Kailash mountain, if one manages to reach it before sunrise. The most difficult terrain is in the Kumaon/Kailash region. One has to negotiate the steep ridge walking over loose pebbles. A 1000 ft stretch might take as much as three hours to get across. But the reward is a full view of the serene and picturesque Kailash mountain round which are woven faith and religion.
However, the focus and the big challenge for the ITBP is setting up, manning and keeping vigil in the air maintained posts, such as Track Junction and DBO, at altitudes ranging from 16,500 feet to nearly 18,000 feet. With temperatures dipping to as much as 40 degrees centigrade, life comes to a standstill here, it has to be geared up by man-made hatchets. First, how does one undertake construction here? Initially, in these air maintained posts, bunkers were constructed by using air-dropped jerricans, skitboards and parachutes. Living accommodation was subsequently provided by erecting fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) shelters the first indigenous use of a material the Swiss had brought into vogue.
A redeeming feature is the existence of a dedicated engineering branch in the ITBP, which a motivated IIT (Kharagpur) engineer heads, providing leadership to a team of dedicated engineers in the ITBPs stern operational battles. FRP technology has been put to good use in building residential accommodation in the posts. A valuable innovation, these state-of-the-art shelters render living in these harsh climatic conditions a little more comfortable.
Yet another valuable innovation of ITBPs engineers is use of solar energy which in this region can be tapped to great advantage. Unavailability of power exerts tremendous psychological pressure on the troops living in these high altitude posts. But it requires a sense of application and innovative spirit to tap solar energy in these heights. Solar streetlights, indoor lighting kits and pumps these are a great boon, provided in many of these high altitude posts by the ITBPs engineers led by DIG (Engineering), Mr A.K. Sen. In this field the ITBP is a pioneer offering a lesson to their Siachen compatriots. More and more solar equipment is planned to be used in the ITBP-operated posts. the ITBP is now trying to tie up with the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources.
Are these challenges great? Of course, yes, but there is much more. There is something that is hard to comprehend even for the policy makers the psychological factors. Nature here is picturesque, but even that beauty gets blurred for the jawans in the high altitudes when it recurs without end; a sort of vacuum sets in the lives of these sentinels of our border. This psyche is hard to describe seeing the same small group all the time, with hardly a variation in life. In this respect, the difference in the Chinese counterparts well-ordered and planned behaviour provides no help for the din of battle is absent. And yet vigil has to be maintained without relaxation.
Adding to the psychological problems of the ITBP men is the worry of families and the trickle in communications. The ITBP operational command led by Director-General Gautam Kaul is providing satellite telephones at some of the posts. But how expensive is their use Rs 75 per minute which the troops can hardly afford. How wonderful would it be if Minister Ram Vilas Paswan were to bestow a little of his largesse to the men who man the Himalayan Siachens on the Indo-Tibetan border? It would be a boon, an immense psychological help in the defence effort.
An overview shows the ITBP as an exceptional paramilitary force one that has the rare distinction of motivation built by camaraderie between the ranks and officers, especially those who lead its dual operations patrolling the border while coping up with natures challenge. The ITBP is conditioned as such, an elite force which is supposed to merge with the local people, trained in partisan warfare and in high altitude confrontation. However, the force at present works under great stress and strain not only because of the challenges that nature poses but also more because of the utter neglect of the human factor by the decision makers. It is remembered only when an ITBP expedition sets a record or accomplishes a rare feat such as the conquest of Kanchenjunga from the south-west face.
The handicap under which the ITBP works is best illustrated by the difference in treatment to the Siachen force and those in Daulat Beg Oldi the all-sided difference, including food and loads the jawans have to carry with them. In the case of Siachen, the load has been reduced to 10 kg for ITBP constables it is 22 kg. The big factor which marks out the ITBP, however, is the small manpower 25 battalions carrying on their shoulders work of about double this force, as can be seen in comparative terms with other sectors of the border. The most serious implication is the impairment of the health of jawans as well as middle-rung officers who share the battle load with the constables.
This is caused by the total disappearance of reserve battalions. Initially, every sub-sector had a reserve battalion to take care of the rest, recuperation and training of the force deployed on the borders where because of harsh climatic conditions no rigorous training is possible. But these reserve battalions were gradually inducted into counter-insurgency operations first in Punjab and lately in J & K. As a result, not only does training suffer but also the absence of relief from their arduous postings is telling on the health and operational efficiency of the force. The army puts its officers and men in Siachen for a period of two months only and they never go back to this posting in their entire career. In contrast, ITBP personnel stay in the areas as difficult as Siachen throughout their lives without the benefits that Armymen draw while they are posted at Siachen. The tremendous effect that this situation is having on the personnel of the force is seen from the fact that as many as 2000-odd persons of the ITBP are in the low medical category. A big number suffer from high altitude-related diseases, including pulmonary odema. Given the fact that it is a small force of 30,000 persons, this 7 per cent figure of LMC personnel is alarming. There could be no better description of the smugness with which the ITBP and its heroic work on the harsh border it mans is dealt with.
Part of the smugness and apathy for the Indo-Tibetan border and the ITBP flows from wrong assumptions with regard to the adversary across the border. Namely, the absence of dangers similar to those posed by terrorist intrusions and Pakistani armed threat across other segments of the land borders whether on the high hills or the plains. True, the Chinese side does not pose similar threats. But can the vigil, upkeep and patrolling of the border be dispensed with on this sector because of the dissimilar nature of Sino-Indian relations? Thus, while the Chinese border guards do not indulge in the type of threats that emanate on the borders with Pakistan, in some respects they pose a bigger challenge by virtue of better organisation and infrastructure and roads built on the other side far better than what Pakistan can provide. The terrain also helps the Chinese.
trigger wrong attitudes and become the source of serious
shortcomings in the backup and operational conditions for
the ITBP. Unless these shortcomings are speedily
rectified the strength and vibrancy of this heroic force
the 30,000 strong ITBP can be seriously
AMAZINGLY, many people walk into a bookshop only when they need a book quite often a text-book for son or daughter. They seldom do so for a bit of browsing.
Of course, there are some spirited souls who go to a bookshop to make their visit a foppish chivalry of sorts. There are others who are coxcombs and self-styled lovers of good literature.
There is yet another class of book lovers who habitually window-shop, have a good or cursory look at the beauties displayed in the show window. Sometime, they may saunter into the shop, enquire the price of a particular volume, and retreat. The intention to buy was never there in the first or last instance. I belonged to this category when I had no money to buy books.
Then, we have the genuine book lover who enters the shop with a purpose not because he wants to buy a particular book but because he thinks that there may be a good one, reposing in the shelf which needs him. He is different from the one who falls for an attractive cover and buys the book to exhibit it in his drawing-room.
It reminds me of the story of Dr Johnson and a fashionable lady a lover of books. She invited the literary dictator of the 18th century to her study. The doctor was highly impressed with her huge collection. As she went in to look after some detail of hospitality, Johnson got up and pulled one dusty volume from the shelf. He was stunned it was a dummy.
Bookshops, store houses of information, wisdom and knowledge get step-brotherly treatment from us. We neglect or ignore them. This is more flagrant in our city of fun, frolic, fests and carnivals.
If we open our rusty mind to a book, a musty flavour comes out of it (Charles Lamb loved it) and it lingers on your hands like a good perfume. If we have a sixth sense, we at once know that we have met our book. We may remain engrossed in our worldly affairs but the spirit and flavour of the book sticks to us.
Even a few paragraphs, hurriedly rushed through, the beauty of the prose or verse may change the whole flow of thinking for a day or days, reverse the negative into the positive.
If it is humour, we have struck a mini gold mine. A book I acquired recently: An Anthology for Preachers and Teachers, gave me this: I want some grapes for my sick husband. Do you know if any poison has been sprayed on these? No madam, you will have to get that at the chemists.
When we meet such a book, we know that we have owned a precious thing. A virtual beauty, symbolic of virtue, suffuses such a book. If we have acute sensibilities, and a feel for good books, we can feel mysterious signals emanating from it towards us. It is like the beloved sending silent, speechless messages to the lover.
A seasoned book reviewer once wrote that no string of adjectives on a jacket ever does a bit of good for the book. He was right. We like our food because of its quality, not the package.
Sometimes, a book provides thrill and joy because it falls in our hands unexpectedly. I once drew a book from a university library in 1989. The slip at the back showed that it had been last drawn in 1980. The book became a jealous passion with me like the ring of a newly engaged girl.
There are perversions which make a book lover lose his passion. One is too much praise of the book by someone else. Jealousy slyly steals into every sphere.
Road maniacs on the loose
UNPRECEDENTED violence depicted in Bollywood films, the burgeoning of car population and the mushrooming of nouveau riche multi-multi-millionaires in the country have spawned a new breed of persons the road maniacs. Usually the wards of influential business men, bureaucrats or politicians, these maniacs use their cars to commit mayhem and murder in broad day light. As the victims of such maniacs multiply as these maniacs roam freely one wonders where this country is headed for.
A couple of months ago when a traffic constable on duty dared to ask the son of an influential business man in Delhi to pay penalty for using a mobile phone while driving, hell was let loose. The maniac drove the car onto the constable who ended up on the bonnet. Luckily, he escaped death. But Ravi Chowdhry, a young business man, was not that lucky. A few weeks ago, he saw his parked car being bruised badly by the car of another person. When Ravi pointed out this to the culprit, the latter turned his Gypsy around and not only hit Ravi badly but even crushed him to death as is often depicted in violent scenes enacted in the Bollywood movies. In the Gypsy of the culprit were also seated his wife and children. They too must have felt traumatised by the blood-curdling and cold-blooded act of killing done by someone they looked up to as their role model. Strangely enough, no passer-by came to the aid of the victim. No one raised a voice of protest.
The indifference of the public to the victims of rage road drivers (or other road accidents) is phenomenal. Sometimes ago, the pampered grandson of a naval chief did something absolutely revolting. Using his car, if it was a battleship, he mowed down a number of persons on the road. But the worst happened later, when the case against the accused camp up for hearing in the court. People who were eye-witnesses to this ghastly incident changed their versions on cross-examination by the defence lawyers. Needless to say they did so for extraneous considerations.
Fortunately, even today one does come across persons who show deep concern for human life and display exemplary courage to come to the aid of rage or other accident victims. A.S. Mann, a business man from Chandigarh, is one such person. He displayed these qualities when he rescued the victims of a road accident on the night of May 31. As indifferent motorists passed by such victims, Mr Mann literally forced many of them to stop and help him carry survivors to a government-run hospital in Chandigarh. Here too Mann was appalled at the indifference of the doctors and the para-medical staff in treating the injured. Pained at this he told the Press that he had never been disappointed with the system as he was last night. Here I was trying to manage medical care for the bleeding people... and there they were... an unbelievably callous lot who were ready to give away nothing except a stupid reference.
Observers say the bigger the city, the greater the level of indifference of the passers-by to the sufferings of the fellow beings in general and the road rage victims in particular. Delhi, our Capital, tops the list in this regard. Here, it seems the road rage has replaced the rules of the road. No motorist bothers to follow the traffic code. Everyone seems to be in a tearing hurry as if he or she is rushing to the battle front to fight an invading army. And the worst offenders are the truck drivers, children or wards of the nouveau riche and people in power. To them no ones life is important as they believe that money and power are enough to shield them from coming to any harm. Emboldened by this, they are ever ready to carry out in real life what they witness in the reel-life.
As of now, the infection of lawless driving has spread to such an extent that no solitary policeman dare stop a traffic violator. Each vehicle owner in big cities seems to be following his or her own set of rules. Consequently, the road rage victims are on the rise every year. Quick-tempered and stress-ridden as city car owners generally are, they are most likely to get transformed into road rage maniacs at the slightest provocation. In fact, one road rage behind the steering wheel is enough to kill or maim law-abiding citizens or other car drivers in a fit of rage at any moment.
While psychologists and traffic experts ascribe a host of reasons for this burgeoning road rage phenomenon, yet no one really knows the exact reason for this. Thus, a research study to discover this is called for. In the meantime, the police must weed out such maniacs from the roads through well-designed strategies. One of these could be to thoroughly test the driving skills of each and every driving-licence aspirant before the licence is actually given. Next, the police must have more mobile vans with armed personnel for systematic and regular patrolling on the highways. In the developed world, a distress call to the police from anywhere brings men-in-uniform rushing to the spot of accident or any other road casualty within three minutes. Why cant we have a traffic policing system like that too?
Apart from the police,
we do need some non-government or voluntary effort for
helping the road rage victims. They can educate people on
the need to come to the immediate help of the victims as
also inform the nearest point where volunteers are always
on the alert to rush to the aid of the injured or maimed
or traumatised victims of accidents. And we do need this
voluntary effort in an organised manner on a very wide
scale so as to cover the entire country. Is this asking
for too much? N.P.A.
I am the Way, and the
Truth and the Life:
and the Father is in me? The words that I say unto you, I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwellth in me, He doeth the works. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works sake. Verily, verily I say unto you, He that believeth in me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.
The Gospel According to St. John, 14: 6, 9-12.
All that is in the
heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth
He it is who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations and to make them grow, and to teach them the scripture and Wisdom, though heretofore they were indeed in error manifest.
The Holy Quran, The Congregation, revealed at Al-Madinah
I am the same to all
beings; to Me there is none hateful, none dear.
Even if a man of the most sinful conduct worships Me with undeviating devotion, he must be reckoned as righteous, for he has rightly resolved.
Fix your mind on Me; be devoted to Me; sacrifice unto Me; bow down to Me. Having thus made yourself steadfast in Me, taking Me as the Supreme Goal, you will come to Me.
|| Punjab | Haryana | Jammu & Kashmir | Himachal Pradesh | Regional Briefs | Nation | Editorial |
| Business | Sport | World | Mailbag | In Spotlight | Chandigarh Tribune | Ludhiana Tribune
50 years of Independence | Tercentenary Celebrations |
| 120 Years of Trust | Calendar | Weather | Archive | Subscribe | Suggestion | E-mail |